Special Education, Public School Law & Educational Laws and Policies, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis


William Alan Kritsonis, PhD Professor Public School Law & Educational Laws and Policies


FAPE   INTRODUCTION The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is the law that provides your child with the right to a free, appropriate public education (FAPE). The purpose of the IDEA is “to ensure that all children with disabilities have available to them a free appropriate public education that emphasizes special education and related services designed to meet their unique needs and prepare them for further education, employment, and independent living…” 20 U.S.C. 1400(d) (Wrightslaw: Special Education Law, 2nd Edition, page 20). The Board of Education v. Rowley case is significant because it established the principle that school districts are not required to maximize the potential of a child but provide some educational benefit to the child and how courts would examine future disputes under IDEA (Walsh, Kemerer, and Maniotis, 2005). Case One United States Supreme Court BOARD OF EDUCATION OF THE HENDRICK HUDSON CENTRAL SCHOOL DISTRICT, WESTCHESTER COUNTY, v. AMY ROWLEY, by her parents, ROWLEY et al. No. 80 – 1002 LITIGANTS Plaintiffs – Petitioners: Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson Central School District, Westchester County, et al. Defendant – Respondent: Amy Rowley, by her parents, Rowley, et., al. BACKGROUND The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (IDEA), provides federal money to assist state and local agencies in educating handicapped children, and federally fund States in compliance with extensive goals and procedures. The Act represents an ambitious federal effort to promote the education of handicapped children, and was passed in response to Congress’ perception that a majority of handicapped in the United States “were either totally excluded from schools or [were] sitting idly in regular classrooms awaiting the time when they were old enough to ‘drop out.'” The Acts evolution and major provisions shed light on the question of statutory interpretation which is at the heart of this case.   Congress first addressed the problem of education the handicapped in 1966 when it amended the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 to establish a grant program “for the purpose of assisting the States in the initiation, expansion, and improvement of programs and projects for the education of handicapped children. That program was repealed in 1970 by the Education for the Handicapped Act, Pub. L. No. 91-230, 84 Star, 175, Part B of which established a grant program similar in purpose to the repealed legislation. Neither the 1966 nor 1970 legislation contained specific guidelines for state use of the grant money; both were aimed primarily at stimulating the States to develop educational resources and to train personnel for educating the handicapped. Dissatisfied with the progress being made under these earlier enactments, and spurred by two district court decisions holding that handicapped children should be given access to a public education, Congress in 1974 greatly increased federal funding for education of the handicapped and for the first time required recipient States to adopt “a goal of providing full educational opportunities to all handicapped children.” Pub. L. 93-380, 88 Stat. 579, 583 (1974) (the 1974 statue). The 1974 statute was recognized as an interim measure only, adopted “in order to give the Congress an additional year in which to study what if any additional Federal assistance [was] required to enable the States to meet the needs of handicapped children.” H.R. Rep. No. 94-332, supra, p.4. The ensuing year of study produced the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975. In order to qualify for federal financial assistance under the Act, a State must demonstrate that it “has in effect a policy that assures all handicapped children the right to a free appropriate public education.” 20 U.S.C. 1412(1). The “free appropriate public education” required by the Act is tailored to the unique needs of the handicapped child by means of an ‘individualized educational program” (IEP). In addition to the state plan and the IEP already described, the Act imposes extensive procedural requirements upon State receiving federal funds under its provisions. Parents or guardians of handicapped children must be notified of any proposed change in “the identification, evaluation, or educational placement of the child or the provision of a free appropriate public education to the child,” and must be permitted to being a complaint about “any matter relating to” such evaluation and education. 1415(b)(1)(D) and (E).6 Complaints brought by parents or guardians must be resolved at “an impartial due process hearing,” and appeal to the State educational agency must be provided if the initial hearing is held at the local or regional level. Thus, although the Act leaves to the States the primary responsibility for developing and executing educational programs for handicapped children, it imposes significant requirements to be followed in the discharge of that responsibility. Compliance is assured by provisions permitting the withholding of federal funds upon determination that a participating state or local agency has failed to satisfy the requirements of the Act, 1414(b)(A), 1416, and by the provision for judicial review. At present, all States except New Mexico receive federal funds under the portions of the Act at issue today. FACTS   Amy Rowley is a deaf student in New York.  Amy has minimal residual hearing and is an excellent lipreader.  During the year before she started attending Furnace Woods School, Amy’s parents and school administrators met and decided to place her in a regular kindergarten classroom to determine what supplemental services would be necessary to her education.  Several members of the administration took a course in sign-language interpretation, and a teletype machine was installed in the principal’s office to facilitate communication with her parents who are also deaf.  After Amy was placed temporarily in the regular classroom, it was determined that she should stay in that class, but be provided with an FM hearing aid to amplify words.  Amy successfully finished her kindergarten year. Before Amy entered first grade, an Individualized Education Plan (IEP) was prepared, which provided that Amy should continue to receive her education in the regular classroom and use the FM hearing aid, she should also receive instruction from a tutor for the deaf for one hour each day and from a speech therapist for three hours each week.  The Rowleys agreed with parts of this plan, but insisted that Amy also be provided a qualified sign-language interpreter in all of her academic classes instead of the assistance proposed in other parts of the IEP. An interpreter had been placed in Amy’s kindergarten class for a 2-week experimental period, but the interpreter had reported that Amy did not need his services at that time.  The same conclusion was reached by the school for Amy’s first grade year.  An independent examiner also agreed with the administrators’ determination that an interpreter was not necessary because Amy was achieving educationally, academically, and socially without such assistance.  Amy performs better than the average child in her class and is advancing easily from grade to grade.  However, she understands less of what goes on in the class than she could if she were not deaf and so she is not learning as much, or performing as well academically, as she would without her handicap. DECISION The Court stated that a “free appropriate public education” is one which consists of educational instruction specially designed to meet the unique needs of the handicapped child, supported by such services as are necessary to permit the child “to benefit” from the instruction.  If personalized instruction is being provided with sufficient supportive services to allow the child to benefit from the instruction, and the other items on the definitional checklist are satisfied, the child is receiving a “free public education.”  Absent in the statute is any substantive standard prescribing the level of education to be accorded handicapped children. “By passing the Act, Congress sought primarily to make public education available to handicapped children.  But in seeking to provide such access to public education, Congress did not impose upon the States any greater substantive educational standard than would be necessary to make such access meaningful.”  Board of Education v. Rowley, 458 U.S. 176 at 192.  The Court says the intent of the act was more to open the Higgins, Green, Reece door of pubic education than to guarantee the level of education once inside.  The Court further states that whatever Congress meant by an “appropriate” education, it did not mean a potential-maximizing education.  It did not mean the State had to provide specialized services to maximize each child’s potential “commensurate with the opportunity provided other children.”  The basic floor of opportunity provided by the Act is access to specialized instruction and related services which are individually designed to provide educational benefit to the handicapped child. DICTA Implicit in the congressional purpose of providing access to a “free appropriate public education” is the requirement that the education to which access is provided be sufficient to confer some educational benefit upon the handicapped child. It would do little good for Congress to spend millions of dollars in providing access to public education only to have the handicapped child receive no benefit from that education. The statutory definition of “free appropriate public education,” in addition to requiring that States provide each child with “specially designed instruction,” expressly requires the provision of “such . . . supportive services . . . as may be required to assist a handicapped child to benefit from special education.” 1401(17) (emphasis added). We therefore conclude that the “basic floor of opportunity” provided by the Act consists of access to specialized instruction and related services which are individually designed to provide educational benefit to the handicapped child. IMPLICATIONS The determination of when handicapped children are receiving sufficient educational benefits to satisfy the requirements of the Act presents a more difficult problem. The Act requires participating States to educate a wide spectrum of handicapped children, from the marginally hearing-impaired to the profoundly retarded palsied. It is clear that the benefits obtainable by children at one end of the spectrum will differ dramatically form those obtainable by children at the other end, with infinite variations in between. One child may have little difficulty competing successfully in an academic setting with nonhandicapped children while another child may encounter great difficulty in acquiring even the most basic of self-maintenance skills. We do not attempt today to establish any one test for determining the adequacy of educational benefits conferred upon all children covered by the Act. Because in this case we are presented with a handicapped child who is receiving substantial specialized instruction and related services, and who is performing above average in the regular classrooms of a public school system, we confine our analysis to the situation. PUBLICE SCHOOL LAW William Allan Kritsonis, PhD   LEAST RESTRICTIVE ENVIRONMENT INTRODUCTION An important provision of Public Law 94-142 (IDEA) is that all handicapped students be educated in the least restrictive environment (LRE) (Heron & Skinner, 1981).  Federal law expresses a strong preference for placing the child with disabilities in the setting in which that child would be served if there were no disability (Walsh, Kemerer, and Maniotis, 2005). However, these requirements continue to generate complex and interesting questions from the field. In particular, this report focuses on questions that have been raised about the relationship of IDEA’s LRE requirements to “inclusion.”  If the goal of IDEA is to mainstream students with disabilities, despite efforts made from administrators, specialists, and staff, how can this be achievable if the child has not made academic progress in the regular classroom? Case One United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit. 950 F.2d. 156 18 IDELR 350 Shannon CARTER, a minor, by and through her father, and next friend, Emory D. Carter, et al., Plaintiffs-Appellee, v. FLORENCE COUNTY SCHOOL DISTRICT FOUR: Ernest K. NICHOLSON, Superintendent, in his official capacity; SCHOOL BOARD MEMBERS; Bennie ANDERSON, Chairman; Monroe FRIDAY, Jack ODOM; Elrita BACOTE; T.R. GREEN; James W. HICKS, in their official capacity No. 91 – 1047 LITIGANTS Plaintiffs – Appellees:    Mark Hartmann, et al. Defendant – Appellant: Florence County School District Four, et., al. BACKGROUND Mark Hartmann is an eleven year old child with autism.  Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by significant deficiencies in communication skills, social interaction, and motor control.  Mark is not able to speak and has severed problems with fine motor coordination.  Mark’s ability to write is limited.  He types on a keyboard but can only consistently type a few words such as “is” and “at”.  Mark has had episodes of   Loud screeching and other disruptive conduct; including, hitting, pinching, kicking, biting, and removing his clothing.  The school district proposed removing Mark from the regular classroom and place him in a class structured for children with autism.  However, he would be integrated for art, music, physical education, library, and recess.  Mark would be allowed to rejoin the regular education setting as he demonstrated an improved ability to handle it.  The Hartmanns refused to approve the IEP, claiming that it failed to comply with the mainstreaming provision of the IDEA, which states that “to the maximum extent appropriate,” disabled children should be educated with children who are not handicapped. 20 U.S.C. § 1412(5)(B). The county initiated due process proceedings, 20 U.S.C. § 1415(b), and on December 14, 1994, the local hearing officer upheld the May 1994 IEP. She found that Mark’s behavior was disruptive and that despite the “enthusiastic” efforts of the county, he had obtained no academic benefit from the regular education classroom. On May 3, 1995, the state review officer affirmed the decision, adopting both the hearing officer’s findings and her legal analysis. The Hartmanns then challenged the hearing officer’s decision in federal court. While the administrative process continued, Mark entered third grade in the regular education classroom at Ashburn. In December of that year, the Hartmanns withdrew Mark from Ashburn. Mark and his mother moved to Montgomery County, Virginia, to permit the Hartmanns to enroll Mark in public school there. Mark was placed in the regular third-grade classroom for the remainder of that year as well as the next. The district court reversed the hearing officer’s decision. The court rejected the administrative findings and concluded that Mark could receive significant educational benefit in a regular classroom and that “the Board simply did not take enough appropriate steps to try to include Mark in a regular class.” The court made little of the testimony of Mark’s Loudoun County instructors, and instead relied heavily on its reading of Mark’s experience in Illinois and Montgomery County. While the hearing officer had addressed Mark’s conduct in detail, the court stated that “given the strong presumption for inclusion under the IDEA, disruptive behavior should not be a significant factor in determining the appropriate educational placement for a disabled child.” FACTS Mark spent his pre-school years in various programs for disabled children. In kindergarten, he spent half his time in a self-contained program for autistic children and half in a regular education classroom at Butterfield Elementary in Lombard, Illinois. Upon entering first grade, Mark received speech and occupational therapy one-on-one, but was otherwise included in the regular classroom at Butterfield full-time with an aide to assist him. After Mark’s first-grade year, the Hartmanns moved to Loudoun County, Virginia, where they enrolled Mark at Ashburn Elementary for the 1993-1994 school year. Based on Mark’s individualized education program (IEP) from Illinois, the school placed Mark in a regular education classroom. To facilitate Mark’s inclusion, Loudoun officials carefully selected his teacher, hired a full-time aide to assist him, and put him in a smaller class with more independent children. Mark’s teacher, Diane Johnson, read extensively about  

  1. autism, and both Johnson and Mark’s aide, Suz Leitner, received training in facilitated communication, a special communication technique used with autistic children. Mark received five hours per week of speech and language therapy with a qualified specialist,   Carolyn Clement. Halfway through the year, Virginia McCullough, a special education teacher, was assigned to provide Mark with three hours of instruction a week and to advise Mark’s teacher and aide.

Mary Kearney, the Loudoun County Director of Special Education, personally worked with Mark’s IEP team, which consisted of Johnson, Leitner, Clement, and Laurie McDonald, the principal of Ashburn. Kearney provided in-service training for the Ashburn staff on autism and inclusion of disabled children in the regular classroom. Johnson, Leitner, Clement, and McDonald also attended a seminar on inclusion held by the Virginia Council for Administrators of Special Education. Mark’s IEP team also received assistance from educational consultants Jamie Ruppmann and Gail Mayfield, and Johnson conferred with additional specialists whose names were provided to her by the Hartmanns and the school. Mark’s curriculum was continually modified to ensure that it was properly adapted to his needs and abilities. Frank Johnson, supervisor of the county’s program for autistic children, formally joined the IEP team in January, but provided assistance throughout the year in managing Mark’s behavior. Mark engaged in daily episodes of loud screeching and other disruptive conduct such as hitting, pinching, kicking, biting, and removing his clothing. These outbursts not only required Diane Johnson and Leitner to calm Mark and redirect him, but also consumed the additional time necessary to get the rest of the children back on task after the distraction. Despite these efforts, by the end of the year Mark’s IEP team concluded that he was making no academic progress in the regular classroom. In Mark’s May 1994 IEP, the team therefore proposed to place Mark in a class specifically structured for autistic children at Leesburg Elementary. Leesburg is a regular elementary school which houses the autism class in order to facilitate interaction between the autistic children and students who are not handicapped. The Leesburg class would have included five autistic students working with a special education teacher and at least one full-time aide. Under the May IEP, Mark would have received only academic instruction and speech in the self-contained classroom, while joining a regular class for art, music, physical education, library, and recess. The Leesburg program also would have permitted Mark to increase the portion of his instruction received in a regular education setting as he demonstrated an improved ability to handle it. DECISION To demand more than this from regular education personnel would essentially require them to become special education teachers trained in the full panoply of disabilities that their students might have. Virginia law does not require this, nor does the IDEA. First, such a requirement would fall afoul of Rowley’s admonition that the IDEA does not guarantee the ideal educational opportunity for every disabled child. Furthermore, when the IDEA was passed, Congress’ intention was not that the Act displace the primacy of   States in the field of education, but that States receive funds to assist them in extending their educational systems to the handicapped.” Rowley, 458 U.S. at 208. The IDEA “expressly incorporates State educational standards.” Schimmel v. Spillane, 819 F.2d 477, 484 (4th Cir. 1987). We can think of few steps that would do more to usurp state educational standards and policy than to have federal courts re-write state teaching certification requirements in the guise of applying the IDEA.  In sum, we conclude that Loudoun County’s efforts on behalf of Mark were sufficient to satisfy the IDEA’s mainstreaming directive. DICTA The IDEA embodies important principles governing the relationship between local school authorities and a reviewing district court. Although section 1415(e)(2) provides district courts with authority to grant “appropriate” relief based on a preponderance of the evidence, 20 U.S.C. § 1415(e)(2), that section “is by no means an invitation to the courts to substitute their own notions of sound educational policy for those of the school authorities which they review.” Board of Education of Hendrick Hudson Central Sch. Dist. v. Rowley, 458 U.S. 176, 206 (1982).  These principles reflect the IDEA’s recognition that federal courts cannot run local schools. Local educators deserve latitude in determining the individualized education program most appropriate for a disabled child. The IDEA does not deprive these educators of the right to apply their professional judgment. Rather it establishes a “basic floor of opportunity” for every handicapped child. Rowley, 458 U.S. at 201. States must provide specialized instruction and related services “sufficient to confer some educational benefit upon the handicapped child,” id. at 200, but the Act does not require “the furnishing of every special service necessary to maximize each handicapped child’s potential,” id. at 199. IMPLICATIONS The IDEA encourages mainstreaming, but only to the extent that it does not prevent a child from receiving educational benefit. The evidence in this case demonstrates that Mark Hartmann was not making academic progress in a regular education classroom despite the provision of adequate supplementary aids and services. Loudoun County properly proposed to place Mark in a partially mainstreamed program which would have addressed the academic deficiencies of his full inclusion program while permitting him to interact with nonhandicapped students to the greatest extent possible. This professional judgment by local educators was deserving of respect. The approval of this educational approach by the local and state administrative officers likewise deserved a deference from the district court which it failed to receive. In rejecting reasonable pedagogical choices and disregarding well-supported administrative findings, the district court assumed an educational mantle which the IDEA did not confer. Accordingly, the judgment must be reversed, and the case remanded with directions to dismiss it. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD


SPECIAL EDUCATION SPECIAL EDUCATION INTRODUCTION “Appropriate” education is one that goes beyond the normal school year. If a child will experience severe or substantial regression during the summer months in the absence of a summer program, the handicapped child may be entitled to year round services. The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA) passed in 1975, this act provided support to state special education programs to provide free appropriate public education to disabled children. National precedent establishing the tests for determining the need for an extended school year for special needs children.             For the purpose of this case we will determine if there is sufficient enough evidence of regression to justify requiring the district to provide summer services to the student. Case One United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit Alamo Heights Independent School District-Plaintiff-Appellants v. State Board Of Education, et al., Defendants-Apelles 790 F .d 1153 LITIGANTS Plaintiff –Appellant: Alamo Heights Independent School District Defendants – Apelles: State Board of Education Background In the summer  1979, when Steven was seven, his mother moved into the Alamo Heights Independent School District. That school year Steven attended a special education program at Cambridge Elementary School. In the late spring of 1980, Mrs. G. requested that the Alamo Heights Independent School District provide summer services for Steven. For seven years prior to 1980 the Alamo Heights School District had offered a summer program to all special education students who were moderately or severely handicapped. The decision to offer the program was made on the administrative level, as a matter of district policy, and any moderate to severely handicapped child was eligible to attend. In the summer of 1980, when Steven would have been eligible for this program, however, the School District changed its policy and offered only a half-day one-month program, without providing transportation. The decision to curtail the summer program was based on its cost and the apparent lack of interest on the part of teachers and eligible students in previous years. No students from Steven’s multiply handicapped class took advantage of the 1980 summer program, nor did Steven. It is not clear, however, whether Mrs. G. was not told of the program or whether the lack of transportation and the hours made it impossible for Steven to attend. During that summer, Steven stayed with a baby-sitter who had no training in special education. There was testimony that Steven’s behavior deteriorated that summer and that he suffered regression in his ability to stand, point, and feed himself. The next year Mrs. G.’s request for summer services and transportation was refused by school officials, without consultation with Steven’s Admission, Review and Dismissal (ARD) Committee or with his teacher. The only caretaker Mrs. G. could find for Steven lived a mile outside of the district boundary, and even during the school year, the School District would not provide out-of-district transportation. Mrs. G. then employed legal counsel and appealed the denial of services to the Texas Education Agency. The administrative hearing officer issued an interim order requesting a meeting of Steven’s ARD Committee to consider the issue of summer services. The ARD Committee met and agreed only to provide some adaptive equipment for Steven and to request consultative services from the state during the summer of 1981. On August 21, 1981, the hearing officer issued a “proposal for decision” in which he found that the School District was required to provide summer services and related transportation services during 1981, and also required the School District to make a decision regarding summer services for 1982 by March of 1982. Facts Without some kind of continuous, structured educational program during the evidence to conclude that Steven G. would definitely suffer severe regression after a summer without such a program, neither can it conclude that he would not and there is evidence that shows that Steven G. has suffered more than the loss of skills in isolated instances, and that he has required recoupment time of more than several weeks after summers without continuous, structured programming. A summer without continuous, structured programming would result in substantial regression of knowledge gained and skills learned, and, given the severity of Steven G.’s handicaps, this regression would be significant. Decision Mrs. G.’s efforts to obtain the appropriate provision of free educational services for her son were pursued within the administrative framework set up by the State of Texas pursuant to EAHCA guidelines. The success she achieved in requiring the School District to provide Steven with an appropriate individualized educational placement, including summer services, was obtained through and within the “elaborate, precisely defined administrative and judicial enforcement system. Because we find that, whether or  denominated due process, the claims upon which Mrs. G. has prevailed are rights granted by the EAHCA, and because the EAHCA contains no provision for attorney’s fees, we agree with the district court that no attorney’s fees are to be awarded under Sec. 1988. We also find that Mrs. G. is not entitled to attorney’s fees under the Rehabilitation Act. In Smith, the Court stated, “Of course, if a State provided services beyond those required by the [EAHCA], but discriminatorily denied those services to a handicapped child, Section 504 [of the Rehabilitation Act] would remain available as an avenue of relief.” Mrs. G. asserts that the fact that the School District provided a summer remedial reading program, free of charge, to nonhandicapped children without providing an analogous free summer program to handicapped children is a clear instance of discrimination on the basis of handicap in violation of Sec. 504. We do not agree. Under the EAHCA, the School District is required to provide handicapped children with a free, appropriate education geared towards their individual needs. If a handicapped child’s IEP requires summer services under the EAHCA, he is entitled to summer services. The fact that the School District affords some nonhandicapped children remedial help during the summer does not mean that it is required to offer similar remedial summer guidance to handicapped children, irrespective of whether their individual IEP’s provide for structured summer services. The school district’s action in Steven’s case has not been shown to constitute discrimination on the basis of his handicap distinct from the protection afforded under the EAHCA. Hence, Mrs. G. is not entitled to attorney’s fees under 29 U.S.C. Sec. 794a(b), the attorney’s fees provision of the Rehabilitation Act. Finally, the School District argues that it was denied due process by the procedures employed by the State Board of Education during the administrative stage of this action. It contends that under Helms v. McDaniel, the hearing officer’s initial proposed decision of August 24, 1981 should have been considered the final decision of the case and that the hearing officer’s later adoption of the Commissioner of Education’s decision was a direct violation of Helms. It contends that the failure of the hearing officer to adopt his initial proposed decision as the final decision of the case denied them due process. The School District does not favor us with any authority for the proposition that an adjudicative officer is prohibited by the due process clause from changing his opinion in the course of an orderly procedure. We find the district court did not err in dismissing the School District’s due process claims against the state defendants. Dicta The district court carefully phrased its conclusion and, while it did not explicitly state that the educational program offered by the School District did not meet the “some educational benefit” standard of Rowley, the district court showed that it was aware of that decision and its judgment is therefore tantamount to such a conclusion. Hence, we hold that the district court applied the appropriate standard to the factual determinations supported by the record. The general injunctive relief granted by the court was appropriate to ensure that Steven receives the summer programming to which he is entitled under the Act. With respect to out-of-district transportation for Steven G., the district court found that transportation is included in the definition of “related service” under 20 U.S.C. Sec. 1401(a)(17) and that such transportation does not cease to be a related service simply because a parent requests transportation to a site a short distance beyond the district boundaries. Implications The evidence indicates that Todd was receiving benefit from the TISD special education program, and hence, the TISD special education program was an appropriate placement under IDEA. Equally important, the TISD special education program provided Todd with an opportunity to interact with nondisabled peers, and was a less restrictive environment than The Oaks. Thus, regardless of whether Todd extracted any academic benefit from the educational program at The Oaks, Todd’s parents’ unilateral decision to place him there remains their financial responsibility. For these reasons, the decision of the district court is AFFIRMED. SPECIAL EDUCATION Professor William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Program in Educational Leadership, PVAMU, The Texas A&M University System SPECIAL EDUCATION INTRODUCTION In order to assure that all children are given a meaningful opportunity to benefit from public education, the education of children with disabilities is required to be tailored to the unique needs of the handicapped child by means of an individualized education plan (IEP). As a condition of federal funding, IDEA requires states to provide all children with a “free appropriate public education,” with the statutory term “appropriate” designating education from which the schoolchild obtains some degree of benefit. This report focuses on parents rights to place their son in a unilateral placement despite the public school program and IEP. The parents by law have the right to request reimbursement for private placement. Case One United States Courts of Appeals, Fifth Circuit TODD L., Mr. and Mrs. L., Defendant-Appellants, v. TEAGUE INDEPENDENT SCHOOL DISTRICT, et al., Plaintiff-Appellee, Docket No. No. 92-8427. LITIGANTS Plaintiffs-Appellant: Todd L., Mr. and Mrs. L., et.al Defendant-Appellee: TEAGUE INDEPENDENT SCHOOL DISTRICT BACKGROUND As a condition of federal funding, IDEA requires states to provide all children with a “free appropriate public education,” with the statutory term “appropriate” designating education from which the schoolchild obtains some degree of benefit. IDEA requires that children with disabilities be educated to the maximum extent possible with nondisabled children in the least restrictive environment consistent with their needs, a concept referred to as “mainstreaming.” In order to assure that all children are given a meaningful opportunity to benefit from public education, the education of children with disabilities is required to be tailored to the unique needs of the handicapped child by means of an individualized education plan (IEP). Complying with IDEA, Todd’s local public school district (the Teague Independent School District, “TISD”), in collaboration with Todd and his parents, developed an IEP for Todd. Consistent with IDEA’s requirement that special education services be tailored to the unique needs of the child, the IEP emphasized one-on-one instruction in specially equipped classrooms, and reduced the length of Todd’s school day from seven hours to two hours. Todd’s school day was reduced not for the convenience of school staff, but in response to Todd’s inability to tolerate a longer school day without becoming unduly frustrated and discouraged, leading to regression rather than academic progress. The school psychologist specifically found that a shortened school day would be necessary, at least temporarily, to assure that Todd’s inability to tolerate frustration did not lead to his giving up on academics altogether and dropping out of school. Though Todd was educated separately from his nondisabled peers for part of the school day, the school arranged for Todd to have contact with nondisabled peers. The goal of Todd’s four-year IEP was to provide him with a nonthreatening environment in which he could continue to make academic progress while gradually learning to tolerate a lengthened school day and increased stress. The record indicates that the authors of Todd’s IEP fully expected that ultimately Todd would be reintegrated into “the mainstream” of regular classes at the TISD school, and would graduate. Facts When Todd’s parents sought reimbursement for the costs of Todd’s institutionalization, the TISD refused on the grounds that Todd had been able to benefit from the TISD program and that The Oaks placement was more restrictive than necessary to provide Todd with educational benefit. Todd’s parents appealed to a special education hearing officer, who found that Todd’s parents should be reimbursed. The special education hearing officer found that Todd’s parents had established that Todd’s local public school was an inappropriate placement while The Oaks was an appropriate placement. According to the hearing officer, there was no evidence that Todd had obtained any benefit from special education at the TISD School. Contending that this factual conclusion was clearly erroneous, and that the hearing officer did not take into account the relative restrictiveness of The Oaks and the TISD School’s special education program, the school district appealed the hearing officer’s decision to federal district court. Although the district court indicated that it gave “due weight” to the decision of the hearing officer, the district court concluded, after reviewing all the evidence from the administrative proceeding and hearing additional evidence, that the TISD public school placement was appropriate, and that The Oaks placement was inappropriate. Therefore, the district court reversed the hearing officer’s decision to grant Todd’s parents reimbursement for the cost of Todd’s institutionalization at The Oaks. Todd’s parents appeal the district court’s decision. We affirm. Decision Having decided that the district court did not err in subjecting the hearing officer’s decision to a searching review, it remains only to decide whether the conclusions drawn by the district court were proper. We review de novo, as a mixed question of law and fact, the district court’s decision that the local school’s IEP was appropriate and that the alternative placement was inappropriate under IDEA. Christopher M. v. Corpus Christi Independent Sch. Dist., 933 F.2d 1285, 1289 (5th Cir.1991). We review the district court’s findings of “underlying fact” for clear error. Id. See also Sherri A.D., 975 F.2d at 207. Findings of “underlying fact” include findings that the schoolchild obtained any benefit from special education services or would be threatened by a longer school day. Christopher M., 933 F.2d at 1289.  If a parent or guardian unilaterally removes a child from the local public school system, the parent or guardian may obtain reimbursement for an alternative placement only if able to demonstrate that the regular school placement was inappropriate, and that the alternative placement was appropriate. School Comm. of Burlington v. Department of Educ., 471 U.S. 359, 373-74, 105 S.Ct. 1996, 2004, 85 L.Ed.2d 385 (1985). If Todd’s IEP in the local public school district was appropriate, then there is no need to inquire further as to the appropriateness of The Oaks’ program. Under IDEA, an “appropriate” placement is that which enables a child to obtain “some benefit” from the public education he is receiving; not necessarily maximization of his potential. See Rowley, 458 U.S. at 198-200, 102 S.Ct. at 3047. In addition to requiring that the child’s placement be appropriate in the sense of providing some benefit, IDEA mandates that to the fullest extent possible, disabled children be educated with non-disabled children in the least restrictive environment. See 20 U.S.C. § 1412(5); Rowley, 458 U.S. at 202, 102 S.Ct. at 3048; Sherri A.D., 975 F.2d at 206 (“Even in cases in which mainstreaming is not a feasible alternative, there is a statutory preference for serving disabled individuals in the setting which is least restrictive of their liberty and which is near the community in which their families live”). A presumption exists in favor of the local public school district’s plan for educating the child, provided it comports with IDEA. See Tatro v. State of Texas, 703 F.2d 823, 830 (5th Cir.1983). See generally Rowley, 458 U.S. at 207-08, 102 S.Ct. at 3051. There is ample evidence that Todd received significant benefit from his public school placement. Todd’s teacher and school psychologist both testified that Todd made significant progress academically and behaviorally while in the TISD special education program. Not only did Todd advance in terms of grade level, he also became steadily more able to focus on particular tasks for longer periods without experiencing debilitating frustration. At the same time, the TISD special education program provided Todd with some opportunity to interact with nondisabled peers, and the opportunity to participate in the affairs of the community in which he lived. Todd’s one-on-one instruction at TISD was no more restrictive than necessary to assure that he would receive some academic benefit from special education at TISD. The school psychologist testified that while she would have recommended some sort of residential placement had the district not been able to provide Todd with one-on-one instruction, she would never consider placing a child like Todd at a residential facility as restrictive as The Oaks without first exhausting the full range of less restrictive alternatives. She testified that even though Todd had serious behavior problems, she did not consider him so unruly as to require twenty-four hour supervision in a locked unit. In the school psychologist’s opinion, The Oaks was a placement of last resort. By contrast to the unambiguous evidence that Todd benefitted from special education at the TISD school, the evidence that Todd benefitted from educational services at The Oaks is equivocal. The evidence Todd’s parents produced to support their claim that Todd benefitted academically from educational programming at The Oaks compares Todd’s performance before he received special education services at the TISD school with Todd’s performance after he was institutionalized. Hence, it is difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain whether the source of the benefit Todd obtained was provided primarily by the TISD school, or by The Oaks. It is uncontroverted that The Oaks’ focus was on behavior management, and that The Oaks devoted only the same or a little more time to Todd’s educational programming than did the TISD school. Finally, Todd’s placement at The Oaks involved more restrictions on Todd’s liberty than any other potential placement, removed Todd from his home community, and completely precluded him from having any contact with nondisabled peers. There is exceedingly little evidence, other than the hospital’s willingness to admit Todd, that he required such a restrictive environment. Although we can assume, based on Todd’s admission to The Oaks, that a physician ratified Todd’s parents’ decision to hospitalize their son, the great weight of the evidence indicated that he could not only cope, but thrive, in a less restrictive setting. Dicta The evidence indicates that Todd was receiving benefit from the TISD special education program, and hence, the TISD special education program was an appropriate placement under IDEA. Equally important, the TISD special education program provided Todd with an opportunity to interact with nondisabled peers, and was a less restrictive environment than The Oaks. Thus, regardless of whether Todd extracted any academic benefit from the educational program at The Oaks, Todd’s parents’ unilateral decision to place him there remains their financial responsibility. For these reasons, the decision of the district court is AFFIRMED. Implications The district court carefully phrased its conclusion and, while it did not explicitly state that the educational program offered by the School District did not meet the “some educational benefit” standard of Rowley, the district court showed that it was aware of that decision and its judgment is therefore tantamount to such a conclusion. Hence, we hold that the district court applied the appropriate standard to the factual determinations supported by the record. The general injunctive relief granted by the court was appropriate to ensure that Steven receives the summer programming to which he is entitled under the Act. Dr. William Allan Kritsonis Inducted into the William H. Parker Leadership Academy Hall of Honor (HBCU) Remarks by Angela Stevens McNeil July 26th 2008 Good Morning. My name is Angela Stevens McNeil and I have the privilege of introducing the next Hall of Honor Inductee, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis. Dr. Kritsonis was chosen because of his dedication to the educational advancement of Prairie View A&M University students. He earned a Bachelor’s degree in 1969 from Central Washington University in Ellensburg, Washington.  In 1971, he earned his Master’s in Education from Seattle Pacific University.  In 1976, he earned his PhD from the University of Iowa. Dr. Kritsonis has served and blessed the field of education as a teacher, principal, superintendent of schools, director of student teaching and field experiences, invited guest professor, author, consultant, editor-in-chief, and publisher.  He has also earned tenure as a professor at the highest academic rank at two major universities. In 2005, Dr. Kritsonis was an Invited Visiting Lecturer at the Oxford Round Table at Oriel College in the University of Oxford, Oxford, England.  His lecture was entitled theWays of Knowing through the Realms of Meaning. In 2004, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis was recognized as the Central Washington University Alumni Association Distinguished Alumnus for the College of Education and Professional Studies. Dr. William Kritsonis is a well respected author of more than 500 articles in professional journals and several books.  In 1983, Dr. Kritsonis founded the NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS. These publications represent a group of highly respected scholarly academic periodicals. In 2004, he established the DOCTORAL FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research. The DOCTORAL FORUM is the only refereed journal in America committed to publishing doctoral students while they are enrolled in course work in their doctoral programs. Over 300 articles have been published by doctorate and master’s degree students and most are indexed in ERIC. Currently, Dr. Kritsonis is a Professor in the PhD Program in Educational Leadership here at Prairie View A&M University. Dr. William Kritsonis has dedicated himself to the advancement of educational leadership and to the education of students at all levels.  It is my honor to bring him to the stage at this time as a William H. Parker Leadership Academy Hall of Honor Inductee.


Characteristics Of Adults Learners That Influence The Curricula of Adults’ Education Courses

Adult education is the form of learning that engages adults in systematic and sustained study processes. It aims at helping adults to gain new information, skills, attitudes and values. Adult education is based on the ideal that learning is a lifelong process and it must not stop at any age. However, continuing education well into the adult years of one’s life is easier said than done. With increasing age, life gets more complicated. Responsibilities increase and with that the time that one can spend on oneself, decreases. It is for busy adults that online courses have been made.


Online education enables busy adults to get back to formal education, without having to give up on existing commitments. They can learn at the pace that they are comfortable with and take classes and appear for examinations from anywhere at a time that is convenient for them. These courses are easily affordable and get completed within a span of few months at the most. Much variety is available in the type of programmes too, which means everyone can learn what he wants to.


However, adult learners have some characteristics which are quite different from young students. These characteristics should be considered while curating adults’ education courses so that they can result in effective learning.


Characteristics of Adult Learners

Adults are characterised by traits like maturity, self-confidence, clear decision-making skills. Adults are practical and purposeful. They are clear about their goal and tend to work towards achieving that goal. They are self motivated and possess great cognitive and social characteristics.


Some of the main adult characteristics that instructional designers must be well aware of are:


Adults take the responsibility of their lives as well as the lives of their loved ones. They know what they want from life and have set goals. These goals make them realize the importance of learning. They gradually develop the sense of self-assessment. At this juncture, they need subtle yet constant support from their instructors.


Practical and results-oriented

Adult learners are considerably more practical than younger students. While this attribute keeps them motivated to keep on learning, it also makes them very result-oriented. They prefer practical knowledge over theories. Therefore, skill development courses are more beneficial for them. These help them to hone their technical and social skills, facilitate their work and also raise their confidence level.


Less open-minded

Adults are not very open to the prospect of change. They are matured and have gained profound life experiences. These experiences lead to rigidity that sometimes make them sceptical about new information. They tend to question ‘why’ and only upon receiving a satisfactory answer, they accept new information.


Slow learning rate but integrative knowledge

Adults have many responsibilities to tend to. The commitments often hamper their pace of learning. They tend to get distracted easily and concentrating on something for too long becomes a hurdle for them. Therefore, adult learners learn more slowly than younger ones. however, their knowledge retention rate is commendable and they gain more integrated knowledge.


Earning an adult education diploma can be one of the best things one can do in order to improve the overall quality of his life. Upgrading one’s knowledge and sharpening one’s skills can enable him to secure better paying jobs. Better salary may help him to fund a more affluent lifestyle. The ability to fulfil one’s own wishes as well as loved one’s wishes can improve his mental health. Contentment can keep issues like depression and inferiority complex at bay.

Heera Public School a best education place in Samalkha

Heera Public School is located on Samalkha Road near Kapashera Border. The school is located in a sprawling five acre land. The school has set for itself very high standards that aim at the all round intellectual, emotional, physical, spiritual and aesthetic development of every student.The school is affiliated to the CBSE. The school offers medical, non-medical and commerce streams in classes XI and XII. The school offers many facilities and opportunities to the students to explore and enjoy. The school has a vast play area that has been developed to national standards. Here the students can play various games like cricket, football, basketball, tennis, badminton etc.

There are special coaches who train the students in these sports. The area in and around the school has a lot of greenery. The school has lush green lawns and seasonal colorful flowers which are a treat for the eyes and make the atmosphere at the school very congenial for the students.Here it is believed that children need love, trust and faith to blossom into responsible and mature individuals.

The school provides a congenial atmosphere to the students. The school aims at providing a congenial atmosphere to nurture the young minds to dream big, aspire, explore and achieve the impossible. The school provides opportunities to the students to develop their interests in public speaking, quizzing, environment awareness and conservation, dance, music, art and taekwondo. The aim of the school is to see each student of Heera Public School develop their own potential to contribute the welfare of mankind. The school is dedicated to academic excellence.

The school provides transport facility. The school takes the pupils of Classes I to XII to and from the school. The students are picked up and dropped only at the stop fixed up by the school. The school has a biology laboratory, physics laboratory, chemistry laboratory, computer laboratories, audio-visual laboratory, mathematics laboratory, library, multipurpose hall, music room, sports room, art and craft room, medical room, basket ball courts, skating rink and volleyball court, badminton court, table tennis hall, sports grounds and assembly ground.

Onlineschooladmissions is a website that caters to parents and helps makes school admissions a delightful experience. Incase you are on the lookout for Heera Public School, Nursery School in India and Nursery School don’t know where to begin, you don’t have to worry. It does everything for you right from filling up your form, submitting them online and scheduling a date for your child’s interview. OSA also posts Blogs on the Internet on topics related to education and parenting and understands a child’s world perfectly.

The Manthan School – Amazing Educational Ambience

The Manthan School offers path breaking services in order to provide a stimulating learning environment for kids. Further, the school program has been designed to support kids to achieve their potential to the utmost extent.

The Manthan school pays equal emphasis on various activities such as academics, sports, language, debates, theatre, dance and music amongst others. It also provides nutritious meals to children and desires to develop as the best available day care in Noida.

A desire to attain excellence is what drives the staff at the school. It focuses on holistic development of children and offers them state of the art facilities. The school is also renowned for its splendid infrastructure which is displayed below:
• Fine art studio (The Arty Fact Room)
• Acting studio (The Playhouse)
• Language studio (The Book House)
• Excellent class rooms
• Working walls
• Composite Lab
• Music and Dance Room
• Skates and skittles floor
• Basketball court
• Table tennis facilities
• Aerobics facilities
• Customized gymnasium for young kids.

Some amazing facilities which are capable of helping the Manthan School to evolve as the best play school in Noida are displayed here:
The Acoustic Box: The Acoustic Box is a place where a student can display his/her concerns without an adult supervision. Further, one can listen to kids’ hearts’ vibrations through this sound box and provide them adequate help.

Chill-Out Zone: Students can enjoy, listen to music or play games at the chill out zone.

Sprinkler Park: Showers or fountains at Sprinkler Park provide artificial rain which is highly enjoyed by the kids.

The Green Globe: An open to sky atrium where kids can learn about beautiful flora and fauna.

The Manthan School is positioned to be affiliated to the CBSE board. Moreover, the primary classes’ curriculum is based on NCERT guidelines. Along with education, extra-curricular activities are also given prominence at the school. The co-curriculum of the school includes:
Art & Craft: Art and Craft is a major part of the school’s curriculum and helps intellectual, personal and social development of kids. These classes also help in enhancing creativity among children.

Music: Music education is important as it helps in evolving spatial intelligence and spatial-temporal skills in kids. Further, it also supports mental and social development of children.

Sports: Sports is necessary for physical strength and should be a part of kids’ life from a tender age. By including physical education, in its curriculum, the Manthan School has displayed its commitment towards kids’ fitness. Sporting activities helps in increasing muscular strength and stamina of children.

Dance: Dance education is also an essential part of the school curriculum. It’s an amazing form of cultural expression and help in developing physical, cognitive and social characteristics amongst kids. Various sorts of dance forms are taught at the school.

The Manthan School desires to help kids fulfill their maximum potential and develop as responsible citizens. The staff at the school focuses on creating the leaders of tomorrow. Due to awesome amenities and an amazing educational ambience, the Manthan School is poised to develop as one of the best schools in Delhi NCR.


Established 25 years ago, TRACE College offers world-class education from preschool and grade school to high school and college, featuring an advanced curriculum, outstanding teachers, and state-of-the-art facilities.

With a unique approach to teaching methodology, this premier school based in Los Baños, Laguna equips students with the necessary knowledge and skills and develops them to become global achievers.

Solid Foundation

TRACE College provides a solid learning foundation for students by giving comprehensive and intensified training in Math, Science and English, combining traditional pedagogical tools such as books with computer-supported and multi-media approaches. The school’s advanced curriculum for basic education and College also incorporates Chinese and Japanese language lessons.

Furthermore, an advanced Music and Arts Program, with classes in voice, violin, guitar, dance, and drums, is integrated for each level for the students’ creativity and multiple intelligences to truly flourish.

TRACE College also offers an innovative Sports Development Program that not only contributes to physical well-being but also helps in cultivating discipline and values. Students engage in a wide range of sports, such as swimming, gymnastics, table tennis, badminton, volleyball, basketball, wall climbing, and many others. Soccer, archery, and tennis will soon be offered.

Ideal Learning Environment

To make learning conducive and optimal, TRACE College features state-of-the-art facilities that provide the ideal environment for scholars and students to be educated. It is the only school in the Philippines that has two virtual laboratories equipped with robotic emergency care simulator and a baby simulator, which mimic the actual responses of a real human being to clinical intervention.

Their topnotch sports facilities includes the Aquatic Sports Complex, the only FINA-approved aquatic center in the Philippines where the 2005 Southeast Asian (SEA) Games was held, Fitness Gym, Stallions Basketball Gym, Dance Hall, and Wall Climbing Center. All of these facilities contribute to a friendly, nurturing, and positive atmosphere for students.

Globally Relevant Courses

TRACE College provides a full range of bachelor’s degree and non-degree courses that are responsive to the global current employment demands. The school holds the distinction as the top college for Nursing in the CALABARZON region and fourth nationwide for schools with 30-99 examinees in 2009.

It offers different tracks for Business Administration, designed to gain an edge in different aspects of business. Depending on their area of interest, students of Business Administration can choose to major in Marketing Management, Business Economics, Financial Management, Human Resource Development and Entrepreneurship.

TRACE College’s Hotel and Restaurant Management program produces restaurateurs and hoteliers that address the needs of the global hospitality industry. Students are able to experience real-life exposure by having hands-on training through TRACE Suites, the school’s two fully operational hotels situated within the campus that have first-class modern facilities.

In addition to these courses, TRACE College offers courses in Computer Science, Computer Engineering, Information Technology & Communication, Education, and soon Civil Engineering, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, as well as associate programs in Computer Technology, Computer Hardware Technology and Caregiving. The school prides itself in achieving 100% passing rate in the recent NCII examinations given among Computer Science graduates.

Scholarship Programs

Taking on the belief that every child deserves excellent education, TRACE College not only develops but also recognizes and rewards promising students who have achieved excellence and are able to demonstrate outstanding potentials by giving them scholarship grants.

Student achievers, leaders and athletes are given opportunity to study in this world-class school. As an incentive to outstanding students, TRACE College grants different kinds of scholarship. The school’s Academic Scholarship Program covers both new and existing students, and offers as much as 100% discount on tuition and miscellaneous fees for students in the top rankings.

For budding movers and shakers, the school has a Student Leaders Scholarship Program, open to new students who have held leadership positions. Scholars who are qualified for the program are entitled to discounts on school fees.

TRACE College also offers Athletic Scholarships for students who excel in their sports. Talented athletes who have won in competitions and tournaments will be given financial subsidy for their education.

In addition, the school recognizes students helping out in the campus’ offices with the Student Assistant Scholarship Program. A discount on tuition fees is extended to diligent students who are able to maintain outstanding grades while being a Student Assistant in TRACE College.

Aside from these scholarship programs, new students and early enrollees are given an automatic 10% discount. Application for TRACE College’s much-coveted scholarship grants are on-going, so students are encouraged to apply now.

TRACE College has gone to great lengths to bring quality and affordability together for the benefit of those who want and deserve world-class learning. Now, through its scholarship programs, excellent education anchored in strong academic foundation for every child is within reach.

Enrollment is now going on. To know more about TRACE College and its Scholarship Programs, call (049) 536.3944 / 536.4193 / 0916.4066542 or visit www.tracecollege.edu.ph.

Homeschooling Vs. Public School – Pros And Cons

Homeschooling and public schooling co-exist successfully today! But one question that often comes in to the mind of parents when the time has come for educating their child is what to choose between homeschooling and public schooling? For parents who are doubtful in choosing the type of education for their children, it is better to know the pros and cons of both systems first.

The advantages of homeschooling over public schooling:

•    Homeschooling provides individual attention and quality time to each learning student which is not possible in a public school. A parent can observe how their kids progress and can help them in areas they find difficult to cope.

•    Homeschooling is more flexible than public schooling as the schedule can be adjusted to the child’s suitability. Flexibility also helps in changing the curriculum according to what is easy for you and your child. Parents can help children understand the subject matter and yield good results.

•    Children are made to learn in a practical environment thereby involving them in a variety of situations. Children tend to learn faster and enjoy working in such situations.

•    Another big advantage of homeschooling over public schooling is the cost structure. Homeschooling is comparatively less expensive as compared to public and private school fees. You can involve your child in social activities that can help them to develop their social skills and hence save a lot of money too.

•    There is no age classification for homeschooling children; hence children not only get engaged with same age group but also with children of different ages and adults as well.

Such factors have induced many parents to opt for homeschooling but one should not forget the positive aspect of public schooling which a child lacks in home based schooling. The advantages of public schooling over homeschooling are:

•    Public schooling provides social development of the child. Although a homeschooling child can be involved in social activities, none will be as effective as being a part of some social groups for years to come. The classroom setting provides the benefit of socializing for your child.

•    The parent is left with the complete responsibility to educate the child during homeschooling. Thus, you might not get time for yourself and your job which is otherwise possible in public schooling. This also helps in reducing financial stress for parents who are both working.

•    Public schooling has trained teachers who are well equipped with the knowledge of teaching a wide range of subjects. Homeschooling, on the other hand leaves no option but for the parent to understand each and every subject before making it easy for their child to learn. Moreover, the parents have to research and gather the curriculum for each of their child.


Established 25 years ago, TRACE College offers world-class education from preschool and grade school to high school and college, featuring an advanced curriculum, outstanding teachers, and state-of-the-art facilities.

With a unique approach to teaching methodology, this premier school based in Los Baños, Laguna equips students with the necessary knowledge and skills and develops them to become global achievers.

Solid Foundation

TRACE College provides a solid learning foundation for students by giving comprehensive and intensified training in Math, Science and English, combining traditional pedagogical tools such as books with computer-supported and multi-media approaches. The school’s advanced curriculum for basic education and College also incorporates Chinese and Japanese language lessons.

Furthermore, an advanced Music and Arts Program, with classes in voice, violin, guitar, dance, and drums, is integrated for each level for the students’ creativity and multiple intelligences to truly flourish.

TRACE College also offers an innovative Sports Development Program that not only contributes to physical well-being but also helps in cultivating discipline and values. Students engage in a wide range of sports, such as swimming, gymnastics, table tennis, badminton, volleyball, basketball, wall climbing, and many others. Soccer, archery, and tennis will soon be offered.

Ideal Learning Environment

To make learning conducive and optimal, TRACE College features state-of-the-art facilities that provide the ideal environment for scholars and students to be educated. It is the only school in the Philippines that has two virtual laboratories equipped with robotic emergency care simulator and a baby simulator, which mimic the actual responses of a real human being to clinical intervention.

Their topnotch sports facilities includes the Aquatic Sports Complex, the only FINA-approved aquatic center in the Philippines where the 2005 Southeast Asian (SEA) Games was held, Fitness Gym, Stallions Basketball Gym, Dance Hall, and Wall Climbing Center. All of these facilities contribute to a friendly, nurturing, and positive atmosphere for students.

Globally Relevant Courses

TRACE College provides a full range of bachelor’s degree and non-degree courses that are responsive to the global current employment demands. The school holds the distinction as the top college for Nursing in the CALABARZON region and fourth nationwide for schools with 30-99 examinees in 2009.

It offers different tracks for Business Administration, designed to gain an edge in different aspects of business. Depending on their area of interest, students of Business Administration can choose to major in Marketing Management, Business Economics, Financial Management, Human Resource Development and Entrepreneurship.

TRACE College’s Hotel and Restaurant Management program produces restaurateurs and hoteliers that address the needs of the global hospitality industry. Students are able to experience real-life exposure by having hands-on training through TRACE Suites, the school’s two fully operational hotels situated within the campus that have first-class modern facilities.

In addition to these courses, TRACE College offers courses in Computer Science, Computer Engineering, Information Technology & Communication, Education, and soon Civil Engineering, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, as well as associate programs in Computer Technology, Computer Hardware Technology and Caregiving. The school prides itself in achieving 100% passing rate in the recent NCII examinations given among Computer Science graduates.

Scholarship Programs

Taking on the belief that every child deserves excellent education, TRACE College not only develops but also recognizes and rewards promising students who have achieved excellence and are able to demonstrate outstanding potentials by giving them scholarship grants.

Student achievers, leaders and athletes are given opportunity to study in this world-class school. As an incentive to outstanding students, TRACE College grants different kinds of scholarship. The school’s Academic Scholarship Program covers both new and existing students, and offers as much as 100% discount on tuition and miscellaneous fees for students in the top rankings.

For budding movers and shakers, the school has a Student Leaders Scholarship Program, open to new students who have held leadership positions. Scholars who are qualified for the program are entitled to discounts on school fees.

TRACE College also offers Athletic Scholarships for students who excel in their sports. Talented athletes who have won in competitions and tournaments will be given financial subsidy for their education.

In addition, the school recognizes students helping out in the campus’ offices with the Student Assistant Scholarship Program. A discount on tuition fees is extended to diligent students who are able to maintain outstanding grades while being a Student Assistant in TRACE College.

Aside from these scholarship programs, new students and early enrollees are given an automatic 10% discount. Application for TRACE College’s much-coveted scholarship grants are on-going, so students are encouraged to apply now.

TRACE College has gone to great lengths to bring quality and affordability together for the benefit of those who want and deserve world-class learning. Now, through its scholarship programs, excellent education anchored in strong academic foundation for every child is within reach.

Enrollment is now going on. To know more about TRACE College and its Scholarship Programs, call (049) 536.3944 / 536.4193 / 0916.4066542 or visit www.tracecollege.edu.ph.

Bible Games Building a Better Human in Kids

Parents looking for world tour to educate their children about the several places, people and events, now have second and most useful options available for them. Bible illustration through games that describe about people, places, events in the early ages, etc could be the better option. Bible, which is the source for all moral values and righteousness to be followed in life, now available through kids Bible games.

Transformation, education and entertainment are the key features of the Bible games. Every game provides Bible lessons for kids that impart Jesus stories, Jesus miracles, prophets preaching, suggestions and lectures in much interactive way through games. Every game has recommended and admired by the Churches, Christian schools and Church leaders. Thus, games are genuine platform for transforming messages through games portal and console.

Every game has its points to score and level to achieve after the kids answer or click on the right answer. Games have illustrated Bible coloring pages that impress the kids a lot. Interestingly, many schools have attached the Bible games in their Christian home school curriculum for the year. Teachers can signup online registration for the games and can encourage for kids Bible games. Teachers or parents get Bible worksheets for kids where all points and level achieved after answering Bible quiz can be noted.

Teachers and parents can check kids lacking on which ground of information or education while playing the Bible games. This is unique and fresh approach for taking your kid across the world to impart information and suggestion for life. World tour will provide several things but will fail to impart moral education, whereas, games played at home or in school help to learn several things in much interactive and interesting way through games.

Games that are provided online are Leapin Lemur, Truth Quest, books of the Bible, X marks the Spot, Reading Plans, Crosswords, Word Searches, Bible Verses for Kids, Devotions for Kids, etc. Every game mentioned above illustrate the Bible and stories that helps to develop the child into a true human being. Games are designed and available having interesting approach that never bores the players, moreover, games provide information that do not look like lectures.

Kids, answer the Bible quiz and avails the points and level that makes them achievers and toppers. If you are looking to impart some good and fruitful information on the kids, online Bible games are the best options that will help develop a better human in your kid.

Top 12 Pioneers in Education


You don’t need to venture into the Old West or shutte into space to be a pioneer.  These Top 12 pioneers in education have explored much rougher terrain to shape modern learning. Horace Mann (1796-1859) Pioneer of American Public School Education Horace Mann grew up in a time when education was not easily obtained for those that lived in the poor rural areas of America.  Though his own early education was limited, he attended Browns University, studied law, and later enjoyed a highly successful political career.  It was during his time serving as a representative and senator in the legislature of Massachusetts and lastly Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education that he used his influence to advance change in the American educational system.  We can thank Horace Mann for teacher training colleges, free libraries, and free public education to all children through taxation. Freidrich Froebel (1782-1852) Pioneer of Early Childhood Education Freidrich Froebel was a German educator whose philosophy of education influenced such people as Horace Mann and Maria Montessori.  Based on the belief that a young child possessed innate qualities that would unfold gradually within a natural setting, he established kindergartens where free expression, creativity, social interaction, motor activity and learning by doing were the focus.  Many of these same tenets can be found in our contemporary early childhood programs.


Charlotte Mason (1842-1923) Pioneer of Home Education A citizen of Britain, Charlotte Mason’s dream was that all children, no matter what social class, should have the opportunity to obtain a liberal arts education.   She was dedicated to improving the way in which children were educated.  Seeing the importance of educating parents in areas of discipline and the training of children, she began the Parents’ Education Union.  It was her belief that children learn best through “living books” rather than dry textbooks and through real experiences.  Her methods included an emphasis on the enjoyment of the arts and the study of great artists and musicians.  Many of her educational practices were well suited to home education and her methods have become the foundation of many homeschooling families. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Pioneer of How Children Learn Anyone who has taken a child psychology class will have studied the developmental and learning theories of Jean Piaget, the Swedish psychologist. Fascinated with how children reasoned, he began researching and writing books on the subject of child psychology.  When he later married and fathered three children, he was supplied with enough data to write three more books!  His research and subsequent theories have become the basis and foundation of our understanding of normal child development. Margaret Bancroft (1854-1912) Pioneer of Special Education Bancroft’s intelligence, imagination, and dedication to her students set her apart as an extraordinary educator.  At the age of 25, she embarked on a courageous and lonely endeavor by opening the first private boarding school in Haddonfield, New Jersey, for children with developmental delays.  She believed that disabled children needed special schools, adapted material, and well trained teachers rather than to be sent to institutions.  Bancroft’s students responded to her love and patience and individually-tailored instruction.  Under her influence, the medical profession began to awaken to their responsibility to help correct defects and disabilities in children.  Admirers of her skill came to train and later became leaders in the field of special education. Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) Pioneer of Education for African-Americans Born into slavery and later freed, Washington knew first hand the difference an education can make in a person’s life.  As a young man, Washington was appointed to head the Tuskegee Institute now called Tuskegee University, which was originally a teacher’s training college for African-Americans.  He was leader of the college from its infancy to the time of his death.  He became a dominant and influential figure among politicians and the general public and did much to pave the way for later civil rights and desegregation of public education.  It was his belief that education was the African-American community’s best chance for social equality and a better future. John Dewey (1859-1952) Pioneer of Progressive Education It was while he was a professor of philosophy and the head of the Chicago University’s teacher college, that Dewey exerted his greatest influence in education and promoted many educational reforms through his experimental schools.  It was his view that children should be encouraged to develop “free personalities” and that they should be taught how to think and to make judgments rather than to simply have their heads filled with knowledge.  He also believed that schools were places where children should learn to live cooperatively. A member of the first teacher’s union, he was concerned for teacher’s rights and their academic freedom.


Maria Montessori (1870-1952) Pioneer of Individualized Education Montessori methods remain the popular choice for many parents who seek an alternative education for their children, especially for the early childhood through the primary years. Before she took an interest in education, Montessori was the first woman in Italy to obtain the training to become a doctor.  She was assigned the post of medical care to the patients of a mental institution and it was there that she encountered “backward” children igniting her passion for education.  Beginning with a daycare facility in one of the poorest neighborhoods in Rome, Montessori put her theories into practice. Her methods were influenced by her previous training in medicine, education, and anthropology.   The results were extraordinary and soon drew much attention from many parts of the world, including America.  The rest, as they say, is history. John Holt (1923-1985) Pioneer and Advocate for Home Education Talk about going full circle.  Whereas Horace Mann fought for the free public education of all children, Holt raised awareness of the need for reform in America’s public schools.  As an educator, he became convinced that the present system stifled the learning of most children mainly because of fear.  Disillusioned by the inability to bring reform and improvement to public schools, Holt left teaching and devoted his time to the promotion of his ideas.   He believed that children learn best when allowed to follow their own interests rather than having learning imposed upon them. His exposure to proponents of home education lead him to later conclude that the best place to set up a natural environment for learning was within a child’s home.  His books had a profound impact on the growth of the home schooling sector. Marie Clay (1926-2007) Pioneer of Balanced Literacy Model and Reading Recovery Born in Wellington, New Zealand, Marie Clay became an international leader in the study of children’s acquisition of literacy.  Her methods of teaching reading and written language have swept through the United States and other English speaking nations since their inception three decades ago.  The reading recovery component was developed as a means of lifting the low achieving first grader to a place alongside the average learner.  The structure of the program calls for close observation of the student by the teacher to design lessons that constantly build on what a child already knows and taking them to the next level.  Children are surrounded by a language rich environment and encouraged to choose reading books that align with their personal interests. Jerome Bruner (1915-)  Pioneer of Discovery Learning Theory To combat the behaviorist approach to education, Bruner developed cognitive psychology and promoted a constructivist approach.  His discovery learning theory is based on the assumption that children learn and remember better what they discover for themselves and that they are better able to remember new information if they connect it to something that they already know. His research and subsequent theories on child development closely aligns with the work of Jean Piaget. Howard Gardner (1943-)  Pioneer of Multiple Intelligences Theory Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences has redefined educators’ views of how students learn and should be assessed. Historically, intelligence has been measured through the ability to problem solve and to demonstrate cognitive ability through various controlled verbal and performance type tasks.   Gardner’s theory broadens the field of how individuals display their intelligence by including linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, special, interpersonal, and intrapersonal intelligences.  Through his influence there has been a greater emphasis placed on performance testing and educators have become more conscious of the need for diversification of instructional strategies to match the learning styles and strengths of students.

The 7 types of intelligence and how to develop them



scrabbleIt is the ability to juggle words: If you like to read, write and love to tell stories; and generally find it easy to play Scrabble type word games or quizzes, then you need to exploit it if you want to learn faster and better.

How to develop it: Crossword puzzles, word games, palindromes (groups of words that can be read either left to right or right to left)… Why not write your own history book ? Take the habit to write your days before going to bed. Record stories on tape and then transcribe them. Your learning must be a concrete text in hands preferably written by you, which will facilitate the learning.


logical timeIt is the ability to think abstractly and logically: these individuals goes straight to the facts, cutting all nontechnical words and poetry. They enjoy puzzles and chess; computers also fit well with this dominant intelligence. Such a
person is constantly in search of structures and relationships between words and ideas in a text.

How to develop it: You could do algorithms (transcribe a problem in a set of instructions in order to solve it), maths, strategic games…etc.


It is the ability to visualize: these individuals invent things, love making plans, know how to read maps, and seem to have an inner GPS system. These people usually have a creative mind, many of them eventually develop an interest in machinery systems and networks.

How to develop it: Individuals demonstrating spatial intelligence need visual cues to guide their reading. So it would be clever to create texts using words and images: a letter in the form of bonding, for example. You could also play maze games, visualizein details a scene of your choice…etc.rubix cube


It is the ability to “seize” the rhythm and the music sounds: these individuals have an excellent musical ear, they got the rhythm, they like to sing or play an instrument. They usually are the first to notice the birds singing.

How to develop it: This type of person will take advantage of everything that is connected directly or indirectly to music. You could transcribe lyrics of your favorite tunes, play an instrument, listen to classical/instrumental music while studying… researches have found that listening to music while studying activates both hemispheres of the brain: the right via music, and the left by doing math or any logical exercises. You could also use your favorite melody and sing what you are about to memorize!srv


It is the ability to play sports and dance, These individuals instinctively know how to move their body. Kinesthetic or tactile learning is a learning style in which learning takes place by the students carrying out physical activities, rather than listening to a lecture or watching demonstrations. People with a preference for kinesthetic learning are also commonly known as “do-ers”.

How to develop it: Writing, working at a computer, typing, walking while learning, using your fingers in symbols to memorize…etc. Anything that will stimulate your tactile sense is welcome.

6. SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE interpersonal skills

Or Interpersonal intelligence, is the ability to interact with people: these people are very sociable and tend to be excellent organizers in their community. However, they can be both very manipulators while good mediators in conflicts. They also value teamwork.

How to develop it: If you identify yourself having this type intelligence, you may consider studying in a group, find a community of eager learner and associate with them. Or you could simply visualize an imaginary meeting with people you respect and value and engage with them.


Or emotional intelligence, it is the ability to feel assured and be comfortable working alone. These individuals are more introverts than mindfulnessthose with the interpersonal intelligence, and therefore prefer individual work to teamwork. They usually have a greater control over their emotions.

How to develop it: One great technique for improving this type of intelligence, is through the practice of mindfulness meditation. Watch this complete guide. You could also for a whole month, with intervals of 3 hours during the day (use your smartphone to schedule this), take notes on how you feel: relax, stop thinking, and transcribe your feelings of the moment. This will dramatically increase your emotional intelligence and self awareness.

Public School, Private School, Or Home Schooling For Your Child

Every parent wants to ensure that their child receives the best education available. But we also want to raise an emotionally healthy and well-rounded adult. There are so many options to choose from; everything from homeschooling to elementary schools with the same cost per year as college. With so many options available, choosing the right option for your family becomes a very daunting task. Although parents that home-school say that it’s the only way, and the ones that send their kids to the expensive boarding school wouldn’t do it any other way, keep in mind that each family is different. This is a decision you get to make for your family.

I think the most commonly implemented schooling method is public school. Public school has a lot to offer. Many public schools get funding from state and federal grants in addition to the budget that gets created by the taxes you pay. This allows public schools the freedom to keep specialists like speech pathologists as full-time staff. Any additional help your child might need, whether it is special education help or just tutoring, public schools are there to meet those needs. As long as your local school district has been showing through testing that it meets the requirements set by the state (which most do) you can feel comfortable sending your child to public school.

Homeschooling is another wonderful option, but it is much more difficult to implement productively. In order for homeschooling to serve your child’s needs you need to be very organized and know the information being taught. Although I graduated high school and got very good grades along the way I doubt I’d be able to remember enough to feel confident teaching my children. Children will also argue much more with a parent than with a teacher, so if your child is not going to be cooperative during the home-school process make sure you will have enough patience to handle the disagreements productively. And of course if both parents work outside the home this option disappears.

There are many different kinds of private school: Montessori schools, ones run by religious institutions, even boarding schools for children. There are far too many options in this category for me to cover it all, so I will speak about private schools as a whole. Although not great for every family or child, some children really do thrive in these more structured environments. Private schools tend to have higher academic and behavioral standards for the children to meet. Although this leaves less time for socialization (which is important, too) it allows your gifted child the opportunity to excel. Public schools don’t always have the capability to challenge gifted children, but private schools will challenge any child. When considering this option, look to your child’s temperament. Some children will prefer a private school over public school.

With so many options regarding you children’s education, it’s no wonder the decision is overwhelming. Just keep in mind that they are all the “right” option. There is nothing wrong with the schools you choose, no matter what your mother-in-law might tell you. So look into the options that are available for your family and decide with confidence. If you are putting thought into what’s best for your child’s future then you are doing the right thing.

College Scholarship Grant For Dads – 5 Steps to Help You Get the Money For School

College Scholarship Grant For Dads – 5 Steps to Help You Get the Money For School

Getting College Scholarships Key to Success

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The Importance of Pre-school Education in A Child’s Life

Many parents wonder if they really need to put their children in a nursery school. The immeasurable value of early education cannot be underestimated. Moreover, children in this age group tend to learn very quickly and can assimilate information very fast. If they are encouraged to learn through interesting games, they pick up skills that help them maintain an edge throughout their lives. This is the time when alphabets and numbers should be taught to them so that they pick skills like reading when old enough for school.

There are other facets of nursery education that people are not aware of. They are as follows:

Benefits of nursery education:

1. Value of early education – In preschools children are exposed to numbers, letters and shapes for the first time. They also begin to learn the names of colors and animals. Perhaps, the most important facet of early education is the simple social interaction with other children. Children learn how to get along with others and contribute to the whole in a meaningful manner. They begin to love the idea of learning without getting impatient with it.

2. Areas of development- The curriculum that is provided by a good nursery school covers many areas which also helps them in their later years. These are formulated by a group of educators who prepare themselves by studying what a child is capable of doing, during these formative years. The syllabus is prepared carefully so that the child is able to understand and learn everything not only visually but also through games and activities.

3. Social skills- The children also build interpersonal relationships with other children. They play together and also get to think while playing the creative and interactive games. These are monitored by the care providers of the children nursery in Abu Dhabi(http://government.ae/en) who are more than capable of handling such interactions. At this age children need to discover things by themselves so that they may see new things and expand their development by being aware of what is happening around them.

4. Learning from others – The nursery schools in Abu Dhabi makes children adept to executing ideas on their own. The children try to understand how things are working around them and imitate grown ups who are close to them. The teachers who continuously keep a watch on the children are qualified individuals who instill good habits in them.

There are kindergarten schools in Abu Dhabithat have efficient staff whom parents are happy to approach.

If you are searching the best nursery school in Abu Dhabi, then the author of this article recommends Caterpillar Nursery.

Educational Value of Games and Sports

In our ever increasing fast pace society, having a recreational sport can give you the much needed way to relax and to stay healthy. The present way in which we live our lives in this modern society can often mean you do not get as much healthy food as you’ve probably liked, and most of the time we do not get the chance to work our body out. Thus picking up a new sport or recreational hobby can do wonders to keep us healthy and happy.

There are many ways of recreational sports activities for your choice disregarding your age bracket ranging from team to dual and outdoor to indoor. Choosing on the numerous options is sometimes confusing especially all of which are enjoyable and self-fulfilling. The decision on which type of recreation and sports activities to master is a great challenge to individuals and sometime the decisions vary from person to person.

The leisure and recreation industry is constantly growing even during tough economic times. People seem to take refuge in the fun and pleasure that recreation and amusement attractions have to offer. Employment opportunities in the leisure and recreation industry are expected to grow as the public’s leisure time grows.

The practice of Caribou hunting is common among Canadians and requires one to thrive moving via a semi rugged terrain because it rotates around one’s interest and enthusiasm. The hunting season occur at the beginning of early September till early January. It is further noted that hunting has been a success and this is based on success rates that range from 96-100%.

Healthy mind can be found only in a healthy body. In a weak body there cannot be a healthy and active mind. And for a healthy body physical exercise is a must. Without physical exercise, our body will grow weak, lethargic and dull. The aim of education is the all round development of a personality. It cannot afford to neglect the physical aspect of a student. Development of mind and body are equally important in any good education.

Movements — from the simple to the complex — are like building blocks. You must have the foundation laid before you can construct the ground floor. You’ve got to have the ground floor completed before the rest of the building can be erected. Similarly, a logical progression of motor skills is essential if children are to achieve optimal motor development. If they skip the prerequisites, they may never progress successfully from one level of skill development to the next.

For success in ballet sports and fitness, strong muscle tone must also result in fluid movement. This requires the minimal tension needed to execute a ballet movement, or position, or a physical move as required in sports training. Magnesium is a nutritional super star. It improves function in the brain, bones and muscles. In team sports, advanced ballet in pointe shoes and pas de deux, magnesium is part of the nutrition that enhances ballet/sports/fitness success.

Learn more about insurance… It’s often said that baseball is America’s favorite past time; however, Americans have all sorts of recreational activities they enjoy. What kind of recreation do you enjoy during your free time? Perhaps you like to play sports at your local park, or go surfing at your nearby beach. Maybe you’re an adventurer and enjoy rock and mountain climbing, or maybe you’d rather spend a nice quiet evening at home, hacking away at your computer on your latest novel.

Map Out A Better Career Path With Advanced Continuing Education


Are you a working individual who is interested to acquire new and varied skills? If yes, advanced continuing education is a good option for you. On completion of such a course, you can be qualified for a wide array of job opportunities and offers from various sectors, both government and private. Advanced continuing education is primarily aimed for adults. These are the courses which can be taken up at any age, therefore, giving you the flexibility to pursue such a course at any given point in your life. Such courses can be on administration, dressmaking, art, foreign language, computer programming, and more. So, if you want to become a facilitator, consultant, teacher or even an administrator, you can take up advanced continuing education to acquire knowledge and skills required for the aforementioned job profiles.  


Not only this, even home makers can take up such a course. Advanced continuing education or adult and community learning is meant for home makers too. Especially those who are willing to learn dressmaking, stitching, handicraft, and the like, can take up such a course. In fact, home makers can open up a small training school on dress making or handicraft as well, after acquiring the relevant skills, and teach other adult learners too. This way, they can earn as well.   Working executives who are interested to work as a part-time lecturer in polytechnic schools or a teacher in adult education schools, can pursue adult and community learning and sharpen the skills required for the job profiles.


  Since these courses do not have any restrictions on age, people can take up such a course whenever they feel that the time is right. A 35 year old marketing professional can even take up such a course on marketing to advance his career goals. A trainer in a corporate setting who is willing to get into an administrative work in a educational institute, can also pursue such a course.   Primarily, advanced continuing education offers some of the following benefits:

  • It prepares adults take up work in the adult education sector.
  • It enhances the communication capabilities and skills of adults.
  • It makes them familiar with education through latest technologies, such as, online video, audio, training materials and different other multi-media formats.
  • It helps adults develop skills of managing adults in challenging work environments.
  • It helps them improve teaching skills.
  • It enhances skills of analysing current developments in different business sectors, such as, healthcare and hospitality.
  • It makes them capable of resolving complex issues in the work front.
  • It helps them understand the value of life-long learning.

Many have already benefited a lot from such courses. There are adults who have recommended these courses to their friends and relatives who are willing to learn new and interesting skills. Some have even got better job offers ( that is, a job offer with a good profile and high pay package) on completion of their advanced continuing education.   If you are interested to take up such a course for your career advancement, go ahead and select a good institute which offers such a course and enroll yourself for it.

Bring Improvements In Professional And Personal Fronts With Adults’ Education Courses

There was a time when formal learning came to a screeching halt after the learner graduated from high school or college and secured a decent paying job. However, learning is for life and must not be stopped at one particular point in life. Who decides that by the time an individual graduates, he has learnt everything that he can? How is it determined that he won’t need to learn anything more ever? The truth is, knowledge should not be restricted at a certain point in one’s life, regardless of the reasons. To know is to grow and the more a person knows, the more he grows intellectually. This intellectual growth affects both the personal and professional fronts of his life.


Fortunately, society’s attitude towards lifelong learning has changed quite a bit in the last few decades. While previously lifelong learning was considered to be idealistic, now it has almost become a necessity, especially for working adults.


Today’s work sectors are a lot more competitive than what they used to be even a few years ago. Besides, with frequent technological advancements,  modern industries have become a lot more demanding too. All industries are now demanding enthusiastic employees, who are ready to learn more for the advancements of their career. In order to become even more efficient and productive, industries need employees, who are eager to know more about modern technologies and how to incorporate them in their work processes.


How does adult learning help an individual?


Professional development – Getting an adult education diploma is probably the best investment that a working adult can make. Enhancing one’s professional knowledge and skills can help him to perform better. Better performance can significantly increase his chances of getting a salary hike or even a promotion.


Better quality of life – Better remuneration can enable an individual to fund a more affluent lifestyle. He can make necessary changes in his and his family members’ lives and make living more comfortable for them.


Enhanced skills – Adult learning enhances the learner’s understanding, analytical and communication skills. These skills help him to make informed decisions. The more informed his decisions are, the more are the chances of them being right.


Improved confidence – The ability to make right decisions instills new confidence in the learner. He starts to depend more on himself than on others and willingly takes up responsibilities, something he might have been shy about previously.


Increased self-esteem – New achievements, both on the personal and professional fronts, help to increase his self-esteem. He starts feeling good about himself and his life. Mental issues like anxiety, dissatisfaction and depression are easier to avoid, when a person feels content.


Adult education courses do not improve just one segment of a learner’s life. These courses aim to bring about an overall improvement in an individual’s personality, occupation and lifestyle. Whether an adult is looking for a promotion or a salary hike or not, he must consider enrolling in one of these courses. He can still decide to revive his love for learning in order to find a new interest.

Adult And Community Learning – An Enriching And Enjoyable Experience

Are you willing to explore new and varied skills and learn them for your professional advancement? If yes, you can simply go ahead and pursue adult and community learning courses. These courses can open up lucrative career opportunities for you. On completion of such a course, you can get jobs in various sectors, for instance, government, healthcare, banking, and many more.

These adult and community learning courses or advanced continuing education courses can be highly beneficial for those who are not ready to take up a degree course but are interested to boost their career with very specific skill sets and knowledge. They can pursue such courses and advance their knowledge base. They are primarily formulated for consultants, teachers, trainers, and also facilitators in adult education sectors. Adults, who are willing to acquire new skills can pursue such a learning course in art, dressmaking, foreign language, administration and even basic computer studies.

Advanced continuing education is primarily for those who aim to work with adults in post-compulsory settings, for instance, part-time lecturers in various polytechnic schools and trainers in community adult education institutes.

Interestingly, such courses have no age bar. So adults of any age can take up such a course. So even if you want to make a career transition at the age of 35 or 40 years, you can pursue such a course and switch to a different career field, as per your choice. For instance, if an administration job requires you to know a specific foreign language, you can take up an advanced continuing education and learn that particular language. This way you will stay ahead of the others. Moreover, with new skills and knowledge, you can change jobs easily and get better paid jobs tool.

On the other hand, if you are a home maker and a mother of two, you can take up a cookery class to improve your cooking skills, as part of your adult and community learning. This can not only help you learn more about cooking, you can even impress guests and visitors with your expert cooking skills. Some of the other topics of these courses also include crafts, yoga, stitching and even techniques to provide first-aid to family.

Institutes offer adult and community learning with an aim to equip adult learners with skills which can make them proficient in their personal as well as professional lives. Learners get to:

  • Learn in comfortable and safe environments
  • Benefit from high quality teaching
  • Have access to impartial information
  • Participate in an enjoyable work culture
  • Be treated with respect
  • Enhance face-to-face communication skills and also the understanding of latest technologies, such as, online video, audio, training documents
  • Improve the skills of managing adults in challenging work places
  • Develop analysing skills about current developments in various business segments, such as, banking and healthcare.
  • Understand the value of adult learning

Such advanced continuing education courses have proved fruitful for many adult learners in more ways than one. It has helped many go up the career graph and has offered them a competitive edge over the others.


Homeschooled Children Continue Outperforming Their Public School Counterparts as Homeschooling Increases in Popularity

In America, there was a time when the idea of homeschooling raised eyebrows of concern and could result in a visit from social services. A lack of trust by the government and public in general in a parent’s ability to educate their own children made homeschooling a bit of a stigma.
Even today in some circles, there are still many “old school” thinkers that go so far as to say that homeschooling is tantamount to deliberate child abuse. As ridiculous as that sounds to most of us, overcoming such ignorance has been a problem for some parents looking into homeschooling.
Overseas, it can be much worse. Homeschooling is illegal in Germany, a law instituted under Hitler and still enforced today. German families who choose to home school must do so in secret and run the risk of arrest; or worse, having the state take their children away.
Performance of home schools versus public and private schools
It doesn’t take much effort or investigation to discover that homeschoolers excel above their public school counter parts in nearly every category. According to a study conducted by Dr. Lawrence Rudner:
• The average home schooled 8th grade student performs four grade levels above the national average.
• One in four home school students are enrolled in a grade level that is above their age level.
• In every grade and in every subject, home schooled students outperform both public and private school students.
Other studies confirm these findings, showing that home schooled students have a much higher college entry rate, score higher on SAT’s and ACT’s, have a higher rate of college graduation, and earn higher incomes in the workforce.
These numbers come despite the fact that about 25% of parents in America who choose to home school either never attended college, or attended but never received a degree. An additional 7-10% have only an Associate degree.
Why do homeschooled children perform so well?
The advantages to homeschooling are many, and are quite revealing as to why homeschooled children do so well.
One on one attention – Whenever a child needs assistance, the parent is there to give him or her full attention, whereas in public schools a teacher must divide their attention between dozens of children.

Ability to focus more time where needed – If a student excels in math, but flounders in science, then a parent can very easily devote as much time as is needed to teaching science. Public schools are regimented, with each subject receiving equal time regardless as to the performance of the student.
Homeschooled students move at their own pace – If a student excels in math then they can advance much quicker than students in a public school, where all students are required to move at the same pace.
Diminished distractions – The parents control the environment, and there is no peer pressure from other students trying to talk a homeschooled student into doing things other than school work or study.
Do parents need some kind of special training or certification?
Some states highly regulate home schools, requiring training and certification in some instances. However, studies show that there is virtually no difference in performance between homeschooled students in highly regulated states versus homeschooled students in states with little or no regulation.
The truth is that homeschooling is gaining in popularity and as such, more and more information and help materials are becoming available. The modern homeschooling parent can now effectively teach their children, regardless of the parent’s own education level, thanks to pre-developed curriculums such as those provided by Heritage Home School Academy.
Parents today can use these curriculums to guide their children. Some curriculums are so effective that parents can study ahead of their children in any subject for which they are lacking and effectively teach the same subject to their children. Furthermore, many children often “learn to learn,” reaching a point where they are able to teach themselves and follow a curriculum with little interaction required from the parent.
Each year more families choose to start homeschooling, spreading knowledge about its benefits, and erasing old stigmas along the way. For more information about homeschooling and home school curriculums, visit Heritage Home School Academy.

Pakistan’s Education System – Problems and Reasons for Policy Failure

After more than a half century of independence, nearly half of Pakistan’s population is still illiterate. According toHathaway (2005), Pakistan’s education system is regularly cited as one of the most serious impediments preventing the country from achieving its potential.

Poorly produced and inadequately implemented educational policies and plans have been major hurdles in the development of the education sector in Pakistan. Throughout our history, new policies and plans have often been prepared without giving due consideration to the causes of failure of previous policies and plans.

In order to address these problems, there is a need for the formulation of rational policies and plans as well as an adequate system for their implementation. The objective of this paper is to scrutinize the problems being faced by the education sector in Pakistan. It also seeks to highlight the reasons for the failure of the national education policy.

Background of Pakistan’s Education System

According to several international assessments, Pakistan is far from achieving the goal of Education for All (henceforth, EFA). The EFA was set to be attained by all developing countries under the Dakar Framework decided at a meeting held in Senegal in 2000. UNESCO attributes Pakistan’s placement at a lower EFA development Index (EDI) category to low primary school participation, adult illiteracy, gender disparities, inequalities in education and poor quality of education. The adult literacy rate in Pakistan is under 50 percent, while less than one-third of adult women have a functional reading ability. Pakistan is unlikely to achieve the adult literacy target by 2015. Progress is slow, while gender parity goal is at risk of not being achieved in 2015. Moreover, more than 6 million children are out of school. (UNESCO 2007)

Key Performance Indicators for Education Systems

The frequently used indicators are adult literacy rates, male and female enrollment at different levels and in different areas of the country; the dropout rates, the amount of resources committed to education as a proportion of the GDP and, finally, some measure of the quality of education provided. To these indicators, one should also add the quality of data and information available about education. Unfortunately, Pakistan’s record is relatively poor on all these counts.

An Overview of Problems being faced by Pakistan’s Education Sector

According to the Asian Development Bank, Pakistan’s education sector is marred by corruption, strong gender and regional inequalities and insufficient budget allocations, leading to social imbalances and poor delivery of services in the public sector.

Insufficient Budget Allocation

While the share of public education expenditure in national budgets increased in many regional countries moving towards Universal Primary Education (UPE), it has declined in Pakistan. According to the International Crisis Group, Pakistan is one of only 12 countries in the world that spends less than 2 percent of its GDP on education.

Under utilization of Funds

Less than fifty percent of the funds allocated for development expenditure of the Ministry of Education at the federal level are actually utilized (Aly 2007). A major reason for this underutilization of funds is their complex financial allocation and release system.


Corruption is one of the major contributing factors for failure of educational policy. It is due to lack of accountability and transparency along with low salaries of the staff. An estimated Rs. 2,594 million out of a total of Rs. 7,016 million provided for improvement of school facilities such as buildings, electricity, drinkable water, etc had gone unaccounted during the fiscal periods 2001-06. (UNESCO 2007) Similarly more than 70% literacy centres in Punjab are inoperative or exist only on paper(ADBP 2007).

Gender Discrimination and Regional Inequalities

The adult female illiteracy rate in the country was twice as high as for males, according to a report released by the International Labour Organization (ILO) in September. The illiteracy rate was 23.3% for males and 46.9% for females. According to the National Economic Survey, Balochistan had the largest number of schools in disorder. It also had the lowest number of educational institutions, the lowest literacy rate among both males and females, the lowest ranking in the Gender Parity Index and the fewest private educational institutes in the country.

Multiplicity of Systems leading to Social Imbalances

There are many systems working in the country, resulting in social division and conflict. The students from the elite class follow the “O” and “A” levels curriculum instead of Pakistan’s domestic poor quality curriculum. They have little or no awareness of their religion and culture whereas those passing out from Urdu medium schools are usually destined to work in clerical and lower level positions. Religious madrassas churn out yet another class that is usually unaware of the world outside their own.

Poor Delivery of Services leading to Low Enrolment in Schools

Teacher absenteeism, untrained teachers, inadequate materials and obsolete teaching methods are the main reasons for low enrolment in schools. According to Burki, most of the public schools are poorly managed, impart education of poor quality, use poorly written textbooks and use curricula that are not relevant for the needs of the 21st century.

The dropout rate of those lucky enough to be enrolled was 45%. According to several reports, most of the public sector educational institutions remain in a state of disrepair and lack even basic facilities resulting in substandard education. There are four areas that cry for immediate attention; curriculum, textbooks, examinations, and teacher training. (Hoodbhoy 2001)

Private Schools

In comparison with other countries; private basic education in Pakistan enrolls more students than in all countries in the region. The rapid growth of private schools and teaching academies reflects the people’s lack of trust in the public sector schools coupled with a deficiency of sufficient educational institutions to cater to the needs of the fast growing population. However, most of the private schools are only slightly better than the public ones. A few elite schools offer quality education but their inflated fee structure continues to be a problem.

The Policy Environment and Reasons for its Failure

National Education Policy (1998-2010) was prepared prior to Dakar, but since 2001, the Ministry of Education has developed a number of interrelated policy documents after active consultations with NGOs and international development agencies. However, serious problems exist in the policy environment.

Firstly, these problems are arising due to lack of commitment and inefficient management on part of the state. The policy lacks long term vision and its implementation is affected by undue political interference. Moreover, it is not evidence based and reflects the vested interests of the authorities. It does nothing to promote rational and critical thinking skills amongst the students.

Additionally, there is a lack of resource commitment, absence of a realistic implementation plan and poor utilization of resources which are allocated. As relevant statistics are not available, implementation of the education policy has not been successfully executed.

Also, due to weak budgetary planning, the financial data is not centralized and coordinated (USAID 2006). There is a lack of coordination in need assessment and project design and implementation within the government and the donor agencies. Similarly, there is hardly any harmonization between the federal and provincial governments which leads to poor policy implementation.

Another problem with the policy formation process is that little attention is being paid to strengthen the planning wing of the Ministry of Education.

There are also complaints that the government’s consultation with the non-state sector does not necessarily result in action. Teachers have also been generally ignored in the policy making process. So another reason for the failure of our educational policy is consultation without implementation. (UNESCO 2007)

While the policy environment has been favourable to dialogue, and mainly the private but also the public sector has made some contribution to improving access, the challenges to improving quality remain largely unresolved despite much policy deliberation.


As education is the backbone in the development of any nation, the countries that have an effective system of education also happen to be the leaders of the world, both socially and economically. In short it is education, which can turn the population of any country from a burden to human resource. Pakistan’s dire state of education sector and policy implementation demands immediate attention from the government. Without doubling its current financial commitment to education, Pakistan cannot address the numerous challenges to meeting EFA targets by 2015.


Hoodbhoy, P. (2001). What are they Teaching in Pakistani Schools Today? Retrieved December 5, 2008, from http://web.mit.edu/bilal/www/education/hoodbhoy1.html

Burki, S. J.  (2005). Educating the Pakistani Masses. Retrieved December 6, 2008, from http://www.wilsoncenter.org/topics/pubs/FinalPDF.pdf

Hathaway, R. M.  (2005). Education Reform in Pakistan: Building for the Future. Retrieved December 6, 2008, from http://www.wilsoncenter.org/topics/pubs/FinalPDF.pdf

Aly, J.H. (2007). Education in Pakistan: A White Paper (Revised). Documentation to Debate and Finalize the National Education Policy. Islamabad: Government of Pakistan, National Education Policy Review Team.

Bano, M. (2007). Pakistan Country Case Study: Education for All by 2015, Will we make it? UNESCO.

Din, N & Ansari, S. (2008). State of Human Rights in 2007

Iftikhar, A. Recommendations for Improving Education in Pakistan.

Higher Education in Top Private Universities in Punjab

Are you looking to study in some of the best universities in India? Punjab is home to very good academic institutions. Located close to Chandigarh, Desh Bhagat is a top private university in Punjab with almost two decades of experience in teaching and professionally grooming students. The campus is filled with 8000 plus students from various background and cultures from India and abroad. The institution offers the largest diversity of courses in Punjab under one roof. Individuals can choose between more than 256 professional courses.

So if you’re confused whether to take up commerce and do B.Com Professional, BBA, M.Com, MA or an MBA or to do Engineering in civil, automobile, electronic or computer science, food technology, marine or mechanical come to Desh Bhagat. You will discover there is so much to learn… here. Your career aspirations may not be limited to only commerce and engineering.

If you are science oriented you can take up specialized training in BAMS or become an MD in Ayurveda- Rasa Shatra or Ayurveda Kayachikitsa. You can also have a look at what the nursing college or the college of Paramedical Sciences at the university campus has to offer. Courses in Nursing and midwifery, Physiotherapy, Operation Theatre Technology and Medical Lab Technology are available. The training is so extensive you get the opportunity to work alongside medical practitioners and see how they interact with patients, taking real time notes. By the time you graduate you will have full knowledge of how the healthcare centers operate.

Well you still have more options. If you like interacting with people, and being around spices, vegetables and meat that make up fancy food items you could be on the road to being a world renowned chef. Desh Bhagat University‘s leading Airlines, Tourism and Hospitality Management Institute offers major courses in food production, bakery and confectionary, airlines, tourism and hotel management following which you can work at leading restaurants, hotels, cruise ships, or even in accommodation management. However, if you fancy feeding the burgeoning population of mankind within the constraints of economics and environment, a course in Agriculture might appeal your taste.

Do you still fit or shall I ask are you good at solving arguments or arbitrating heated discussion? Does fighting for the quest for justice appeal you. Well you can consider a career in Law which is not only noble professional but also forms an integral part of society. DBU offers courses in B.A LLB and LLM in Business Law, Corporate Law, Human Rights Law, IPR Law, International Law, Legal Studies and Criminal Law.

Well if the economics or math are not your forte, and if you fancy designing websites, developing games or TV commercials our design courses in media and animation, fine arts, art and craft or even media, entertainment and film technology might be the perfect choice for you.

The University also offers training in applied science (B.Sc Physics, Chemistry or Math), Life Science (M.Sc. Zoology) Library Science (D.Lib Science, B.Lib Science), Education (MA, M.Ed, B.Ed) and Social Science (M.A in History, Political Science or Sociology and M.Sc. Psychology).

Parent’s Right, Public School Law, Educational Laws & Policies, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD






Parents are an essential partner in the education of their children.  While constitutional law does not necessarily outline parental rights regarding education, Texas statutory law does.  In fact, in 1995 the Texas Legislature amended the Texas Education Code to include parent rights and responsibilities.  According to Chapter 26 of the Texas Education Code §4.001, “Parents will be full partners with educators in the education of their children (Walsh, Kemerer, & Maniotis, 2007).  The state cannot require all students to attend public schools, thus enabling the parents to right to choose where their children will be educated.  Parents may send their children to public, private, or home schools.

For the purpose of this report, we will present the case that relates to granting parents the right to choose which institution of learning their children will attend.  The findings are intended to be informative and beneficial in understanding the precedent set forth for parent rights and responsibilities regarding the education of their wards.

Case One

United States Supreme Court




268 U.S. 510


Plaintiffs-Appellants: Walter Pierce, Governor of Oregon

Isaac H. Van Winkle, Attorney General of Oregon

Defendant-Appellee: Society of Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary

Hill Military Academy


On November 7, 1922, the voters in Oregon passed an initiative to amend the Compulsory Education Act.  The amendment was aimed at creating a common American culture by eliminating any dogmas that may negatively influence the established norms of American society.  All children between the ages of eight and sixteen were required to attend public school.  Children who were mentally disabled, lived three miles from the nearest road and had already completed the eighth grade were excluded from attending school.  To enforce the law parents who did not send their children to public school were fined and faced 30 days in jail.   The initiative also targeted parochial schools, specifically Catholic schools, because the thought was that such parochial schools hindered assimilation.  Since the Society of Sisters worked with mainly orphaned and disadvantaged children they challenged the fairness of the Act.


The Society of Sisters was an Oregon corporation, organized in 1880, with power to care for orphans, educate and instruct the youth, establish and maintain academies or schools, and acquire necessary real and personal property. The Society’s bill alleges that the enactment conflicts with the right of parents to choose schools where their children will receive appropriate mental and religious training, the right of the child to influence the parents’ choice of a school, the right of schools and teachers therein to engage in a useful business or profession, and is accordingly repugnant to the Constitution and void. And, further, that, unless enforcement of the measure is enjoined the corporation’s business and property will suffer irreparable injury.


JUSTICE McREYNOLDS delivered the opinion of the Court.

The challenged Act, effective September 1, 1926, requires every parent, guardian or other person having control or charge or custody of a child between eight and sixteen years to send him “to a public school for the period of time a public school shall be held during the current year” in the district where the child resides, and failure so to do is declared a misdemeanor. The manifest purpose is to compel general attendance at public schools by normal children, between eight and sixteen, who have not completed the eighth grade. And without doubt enforcement of the statute would seriously impair, perhaps destroy, the profitable features of appellees’ business and greatly diminish the value of their property.

The Society’s bill alleges that the enactment conflicts with the right of parents to choose schools where their children will receive appropriate mental and religious training, the right of the child to influence the parents’ choice of a school, the right of schools and teachers therein to engage in a useful business or profession, and is accordingly repugnant to the Constitution and void. And, further, that, unless enforcement of the measure is enjoined the corporation’s business and property will suffer irreparable injury.

No question is raised concerning the power of the State reasonably to regulate all schools, to inspect, supervise and examine them, their teachers and pupils; to require that all children of proper age attend some school, that teachers shall be of good moral character and patriotic disposition, that certain studies plainly essential to good citizenship must be taught, and that nothing be taught which is manifestly inimical to the public welfare.


Under the doctrine of Meyer v. Nebraska, 262 U.S. 390, we think it entirely plain that the Act of 1922 unreasonably interferes with the liberty of parents and guardians to direct the upbringing and education of children under their control: as often heretofore pointed out, rights guaranteed by the Constitution may not be abridged by legislation which has no reasonable relation to some purpose within the competency of the State. The fundamental theory of liberty upon which all governments in this Union repose excludes any general power of the State to standardize its children by forcing them to accept instruction from public teachers only. The child is not the mere creature of the State; those who nurture him and direct his destiny have the right, coupled with the high duty, to recognize and prepare him for additional obligations.


The Society’s suit against Pierce was successful in establishing that the parents and guardians of students had a right to choose their children’s educational setting.  The ruling set the precedent for parents’ right to choose privately run schools and relieved parents from being forced, through penalties, to have their children educated in public schools.

Private School Vs. Public School: The Ongoing Debate

There has always been a long standing debate whether or not parents should send their children to public or private school. Parents argue both sides of the argument as adamantly as the healthcare problems we are facing in our country. There is no right or wrong answer. It all boils down to what your personal preferences are and which schools you are zoned for should you choose a public school. There are many factors to consider when choosing the right school for your child to attend.

At first glance, public schools are less expensive, which could be a deciding factor. Since the economy is not at its strongest, public school could be a viable option for your child. However, some parents are extremely worried about the safety of their child if they were to go to a public school. Private schools are typically safer than public schools, but that does not mean your child will be completely safe at all times. Incidents occur everywhere among most age groups of school-aged kids. It is your responsibility to do the research to see what the statistics are for the particular schools you are considering. If you find the safety among the private and public schools you are considering has little to no variation then the money could be the deciding factor. Although public schools do not charge you tuition, you still have a few things to pay for, but they are still significantly less expensive than their private counterparts. Some parents think that if they are paying taxes that go to these schools, they should be able to take full advantage of their services.

If your child has special needs, this is another factor you must look into among the schools you are deciding upon. Some private schools are not as well-versed as public schools in the area and vice-versa. Knowing exactly what kind of attention your special needs child will receive is a very big deal!

The curriculum for public and private schools can differ greatly. Public schools are funded by the state, so they have certain guidelines pertaining to their curriculum they must follow. Their teachers are also state certified. Private schools do not have to follow such guidelines because they do not receive any funding from the state and rely on tuition and donations from parents of their students. This could mean the standard for their school is set higher or lower than their public counterparts.

Benefits of Educational Games in Kids’ Development

Before internet became so common, parents used to provide their kids with different types of puzzles that would help them in their early development. In the contemporary times, the world is witnessing a paradigm shift in each and every walk of human life, and even traditional puzzles and games have also hit the cyberspace. It is imperative for parents also be extra particular about these massive structural changes occurring in the society around them, and must encourage their young ones to take part in the puzzles and games online. In this writing piece, you will get a chance to read about the salient benefits of online educational games, particularly in the early development of children.

Cognitive advantages:
When your kids try to bring together the pieces of a puzzle or give a try to match the numbers or colors, they simply start sharpening and polishing their skills. Continuous improvement in the cognitive skills help kids make out the world around them in a practically better way. Strong cognitive capabilities enable children to sharpen their memory also. When a kid gives it a try to remember different types of shapes and colors, his or her brain is getting trained for the ability to focus, grab, grasp and retain the things for longer times. There are renowned websites for children that have partnership with companies to develop educational games for kids.

Emotional Advantages:

Having patience and setting goals are two highly crucial emotional skills that educational games teach your kids. When involved in a game or a puzzle, a child sets a target to solve it within a fixed timeframe. In this emotionally charged and stimulating environ, a child has to create a strategy to produce a result and this is the reason he or she prepares himself or herself mentally to do the job. Setting goals prepares a child for combating all the challenges of future life. Actually, the e-learning content development companies design and develop these stuffs in a highly creative way so that a longer involvement and engagement of kids in the games and puzzles can be ensured.

Physical advantages
Educational games, even in their virtual form, have an extremely positive impact upon the children. It may give you a strange feel because playing games on computers does not involve any kind of physical activity. Actually, solving puzzles and playing creative games online helps a child develop a powerful and long-lasting internal relationship between their hands, brain and eyes. It not only helps give a boost to the speed of their brain but also enables a child swifter to react. The well-coordinated connection between hands and eyes always leaves a very much everlasting impact upon how a child gives reaction instinctively.

Therefore, next time when your kid raises his/her voice for an online game, you just hand over an educational game to him or her. The educational games being designed and developed these days will not make your child feel that the kid is doing all those things to learn something.

Home-Schooling or Public School? Which One Should Parents Choose?

Deciding on whether to home-school or put your child in public school is likely to be one of the biggest decision’s you will ever make. As a parent, you want to make sure that your child receives the best quality education possible. You want to know that they can grow up to be responsible and educated adults that can handle life in the real world and apply the skills they have learned all of their lives toward something that will benefit their future. So the questions remains: Should you home-school or put your child in public school? Let’s take a look at some of the pro’s and con’s of each decision:

Home-Schooling vs. Public School Pros and Cons:

Home-Schooling Pros

One of the biggest benefits of a child who is home-schooled is that they get to learn from the comfort of their own home, so it is a lot easier to concentrate because they are not in the presence of their other peers who may want to socialize, pass notes, etc. Children also do not have to worry about what clothes to wear and “fitting in” with the crowd. There are no popularity contests to be won. Since it is the parent who will most likely be teaching them, they can easily work together to find their own style of learning. They may also have an easier time learning because they will be spending much more time focusing on their work and less time socializing and trying to please their peers.

Home-Schooling Cons

Although there may be more one-on-one time with student and teacher, the lack of socializing may not work out so well in the long run. A lot of people believe that putting a child in public school is the best decision because it gives them a chance to work, socialize, and learn how to interact with other people – a crucial component when finally getting out in the real world. They also have a chance to form friendships, which is something that all children need. The reality of it all is that there will be a time that they will grow up and have to become a part of society.

Public School Pros

As stated above, allowing a child to be around other children their age is a healthy developmental necessity – however it is not the only way to go about it. There are obviously classes and daycare centers that children can get enrolled in to help with this. However, public school provides the complexities needed in order to help a child deal with some of life’s most complicated issues. For example, let’s say that your child is put into a class with a lot of other loud children. This offers a challenge that your child will most likely be able to overcome and in turn, help them to strengthen the skills they already have.

Public School Cons

Not all children have an easy time staying focused, which is why public school may not be the best option, at least not for the entire time your child is in school. Some parents choose to take their children out of public school so they can study instead of socialize and/or get into trouble. There is always the chance of the child getting involved with “the wrong crowd” and completely ditching their passion for learning and developing more of a desire to stand out with their friends. Many teachers in public schools nowadays also demonstrate favoritism toward certain students and ignore others. This can become a real problem and create frustration, tension, friction, and also interfere with the child’s ability to learn and receive the attention he or she needs.

Ultimately, the decision is up to you. It is best to weigh both the pros and cons of each decision and combine with your current circumstances when trying to come up with a final outcome. In any event, you can always try both. It is all about what works out to be the best for your child. All children are different, so what works for one will not necessarily work for another. Make sure that you take all factors into consideration, give it some real thought, and you will be guaranteed to make the best decision for your child.

History of Education, Teacher Training, Teaching, Teachers

A Concise History of Education of Teachers, of Teacher Training and Teaching

Western history of teacher training, education history, teaching theories, education of teachers, modern history od education, began in early 18th century Germany: teaching seminaries educating teachers were the first formal teacher training in Western history of education and teaching.

(History of education had 2nd century-BC Greek Spartan free public education, Athenian Academy until age 18 and higher Academy and Lyceum; Roman private formal schooling in tiers; China’s 1st century-BC administrator examinations; 1st century Jewish informal Cul’ Tura general education; Islam’s 9th century universities [madrasahs]; 16th century Aztec mandatory teen education; 18th century Russian nation-wide education, Poland’s Education Ministry, Chez ‘teacher of nations’ Comenius’s ‘Didactica Magna’ on universal education [compulsory, certified teachers, tests]; leading later Western history of education –17th century Scotland’s free education, 18th’s Norway’s mandatory literacy and  New Zealand’s standard education, 21st’s Europe’s Bologna process equalising educational qualifications.)

Teacher education and training, first teacher training college in French  history of education and history of teaching, Jean Babtiste de la Salle’s 18th century Brothers of the Christian schools, had non-clerical male teachers teaching poor and middle class children. Based on Greek philosophers’ philosophy of education and teaching, re-introduced by Islam, spirituality was not its only reason, basis of education. Teacher education and training had been clerical –this was Western history of education’s first secular teacher training college.

This philosophy of education changed educational history’s attitude to education. It reformed education, educational theory, learning, enabled further education reforms and educational theories of teaching in history of education. With education reforms in education history, educational theory of teacher education required of teachers an understanding of the human mind and the theory of education, knowledge of sciences and arts, principles and educational methods of teaching. This need in educational history for a teaching method, method of education, necessitated theories of education -in Western history of education educational theories on teacher education interested educators.

These educational philosophies and theories of education on teacher education became the norm in Western history of education, teacher training establishments first Normal Schools in the history of education and training of teachers.

Teacher education progressed educational history: in history of education and history of teaching the system of education required and enabled knowledge, in-service experience, certification for teachers, continuing professional development for teachers in teaching. This non-uniform system of teacher education and training enabled teachers, while teaching, at teacher seminars to refresh and increase their knowledge of theory of education and method of teaching -exchanging ideas among teachers.

Napoleon, in history of education and teacher training,  uniformed professional teaching. Adopting Germany’s teacher seminars, in French history of education and in Western history of education and training of teachers, established the first uniform teacher education system.

Neither the USA’s educational history nor British history of education did in educational philosophies, systems of education, include formal teacher education and training, although Elizabeth-I had introduced teachers’ moral teaching fitness certification in teacher education .

In England’s history of education and teaching, in early 19th century Joseph Lancaster and Andrew Bell founded the Lancastarian teaching method of teacher training: in a monitorial system of teacher education and training senior students (‘monitors’) receiving teaching from tutors were teaching junior students, acting as teachers.

In Scotland’s history of education and teaching, 17th century free education compulsory in late 19th, Germany’s teacher education and training influenced David Stowe’s founding the Glasgow Normal Seminary for teachers.

Progress in teaching and teacher training began with Horace Mann’s Massachusetts Normal Schools in the USA’s educational history, and in Britain’s history of education by the churches’ and voluntary organisations’ teacher training colleges and teaching the colonials.

In philosophies of education arguments followed on teacher education in educational history: should persons of lower English social class attend teacher training colleges and give teaching to children of higher social class!? Might teachers’ teaching not influence young French minds with liberal ideas?!

(Japan’s educational philosophy [perhaps influencing the USA’s educational philosophy, history of education and teaching] emphasised patriotic teacher education and teaching.)

In Europe’s history of teacher education and training, Rosencrantz’s 19th century ‘Philosophy of Education’ emphasised ‘philosophical and psychological data’; this, resembling Islam’s university faculties, developed into separate teaching disciplines.

In Sweden’s history of education and teaching, Pestalozzi furthered the progress of systems of education, advocating formal teacher training colleges.

(Pestalozzi, except theologically, was self-educated, did not leave a written account of teaching and of teacher training colleges; his place in the history of education and teaching is deducible in outline from his various writings, loving sincere deeds, the example he set.)

Germany’s Froebel, and Alexander Bain’s ‘Education as a Science’, favoured education of teachers through teacher training colleges; teacher education adopted what philosophies of education in Western educational history and teaching had lacked -Herbart’s pedagogical emphasis in teaching on five formal steps: preparation, presentation, comparison, generalisation, application.

Germany’s teacher education and training became the basis of developments in the history of education and teacher training; Derwent Coleridge and James Kay Shuttleworth in Britain, Mann in the USA broadly agreed: teacher education and training should emphasise techniques of teaching -“not only the subjects of instructions, but also the method of teaching”.

Jules Ferry laws’ compulsory education established teacher education and training in late 19th century French history of education: teacher education and training, by law, should be through formal teacher training colleges.

English speaking countries’ history of education and teaching, formal teacher education and training, began with the University of Edinburgh’s creating a chair in education, with St. Andrews; in the USA’s history of education, e.g., Henry Bernard, Nicholas Murray Butler, followed.

In Western history of education, England’s progress involved pedagogy and Herbart Sepencer’s teaching techniques in teacher education and training, the USA’s e.g., Francis W. Parker’s, studying Germany’s pedagogical teacher education developments.

In the USA’s history of education and teaching the Darwinian hypothesis (as before later scientific evaluation) influenced John Dewey at the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools; taking into account from other disciplines what were considered relevant in teaching to child development, the religiously affiliated Brown University founded an education department.

(The La Salle College in Philadelphia, had been teaching education.)

New York’s Teachers College, founded 1888, was incorporated into the Columbia University, 1893, establishing its teacher training college, announcing: “The purpose of the Teacher Training College is to afford opportunity, both theoretical and practical, for the training of teachers, of both sexes, for kindergartens and elementary schools and secondary schools, of principals, supervisors, and superintendents of schools, and of specialists in various branches of school work, involving normal schools and colleges” -it became the basis, in Western history of education and teaching, of teacher education and training and Teacher Colleges.

(The USA’s educational history experts’ versions vary on it history of education.) 

In most of British Commonwealth’s history of education and system of teacher training, entry into teacher training came to require senior secondary education at High School level or British Grammar School education with national Matriculation or Ordinary and Advanced General Certificate of Education (GCE) examinations –or equivalent.

In Europe’s history of education and teacher training, education with similar Gymnasium(/Abitur)  or General Lycè e Diploma, or equivalent education, became professional teacher education and training entry qualification.

(In British history of education, until early 20th century, holders of those qualifications, by selection examination, could become temporary teachers. Oxbridge graduates could register ‘master’ and be syndicated teachers. Other universities’ graduates, to become teachers, attended teacher training colleges [if Bachelor of Education, second year teacher training of a teacher training college].)

In British Commonwealth’s history of education greater importance was attached to professionalism in teacher education and training: academic qualifications did not suffice for teaching; teacher examinations required specific periods of specifically professional study in teaching. Professional teaching involved two years’ professional study in teaching and additional in-house teacher training before professional teacher status. Professional teachers could, with another educational year at the teacher training college, specialise in a subject, e.g., geography or history (in farming colonies, e.g., Cyprus where Agriculture became a secondary school examination subject,  with one or two more educational years’ through the Teacher Training College’s Rural Agricultural School). Science graduates without professional teaching training and education qualified for permanent teaching after a year’s classroom teaching experience approved by professionally qualified headmasters, as teachers of their subjects. Teachers were expected to attend teachers’ seminars as continuing professional development.

While professional qualifications are regarded for professional reasons equivalent to doctorates in their counterparts and what qualify for teaching, teacher education and training (school age becoming lower and years less, to enable maturer teachers and teaching), for professional teaching knowledge and skills acquired at teacher training colleges, favoured bachelor degrees with teaching content emphasising skills over theory and, e.g., the USA’s academic ‘first professional degree’ –more for research than professional practice.

(British history of education desired teaching with Post-graduate Certificate in Education [PGCE] -for English state school teaching Qualified Teacher Status [QTS] skills test, and [also if Bachelor of Education] successfully completing an induction year [in Scotland two] in school teaching as Newly Qualified Teacher [NQT], with continuing professional development; alternatively a specific teaching degree or on-the-job teacher training. Teachers trained at Teacher Training Colleges in [former] colonies –and similarly trained teachers with GCSE [grade C] or equivalent in English and Mathematics [for primary school teaching, also Physics] enjoy Qualified Teacher Status.)

(Canada’s provinces or schools certify teachers; Australia requires none for federally funded private schools; France’s is college/bachelor and Teacher Institute [master’s -2010].)

{In the USA’s history of education, until 1960s, one year’s teacher training college education was required for teacher certification. In 1984 an alternate teaching route was introduced: bachelor’s with teaching preparation and within a specified number of years completing a teaching or content based master’s. (Some universities award [with summer study] bachelor degrees in two years, some two bachelor degrees simultaneously [e.g., with two arts and two science majors both BA Philosophy and BS ChE Chemical Engineering]; the  doctoral JD is pre-requisite to master’s LL.M which not all tenured professors need posses.) The ‘Master of Professional Studies’ (MPS) First Professional Degree is academic, not professional. Many states require of teachers, for permanent teaching, examinations in pedagogy and a content area or general knowledge accredited by many private associations’ varying standards; in early 21st century Marlboro-Carolina 20% of teachers had no certification.}

In educational history post general education having been academic for career advancement and scholarly activity or research, or professional for actual practice in the filed, the professional qualification is normally the terminating qualification; in professional teaching, advanced professional degrees enabling specialised teaching, e.g., at universities, are not regarded as part of professional teacher education and training for general education teaching; the USA’s main master’s area is for Ed.D or Ph.D. –research.)

In European history of education, teaching related educational leadership gained importance at the end of 20th century. Desiring the benefits of learnable leadership skills and inherent personal leadership qualities, teachers’ educational leadership skills in teaching leadership are remunerated according to national teacher pay scales.

The USA’s educational leadership teachers’ pay is non-uniform; educational leadership skills standards vary. Graduate educational leadership programs are in, e.g., community issues and educational law. Private Teacher Advancement Programmes (TAP) subscribed by some schools encourage teachers in administrative or teaching development: a teacher prepares an individual growth plan (IGP) with an educational goal or teaching activity, or a cluster group of teachers identify a student learning need, becoming ‘mentor’ or ‘master teacher’/‘teacher of teachers’.

As others’, USA’s teacher training colleges’ comparable teaching qualifications enjoy international regard.

In their history of education, having less aspired to ‘practical’ general education as in the USA and 21st century Britain, most British Commonwealth and European teaching institutions almost uniformly value widely academic general education as culture not acquirable in post general education (e.g., an opposition leader to a Prime Minister [both lawyers] “I as a Grammar School boy” [would not take ‘that’ from him who was not]) and Britain’s suggestion to equate practical skills certificates with general academic qualifications was criticised.

(Early 21st century British educational history saw [university or equivalent  mandatory student grants becoming loans, unemployment necessitating longer and more courses, foreigners scoring higher in English] no increase since late 20th in literacy.)

(In the USA’s history of education, with 20% adult functional illiteracy, as the educationists’ concerns grew, the educationalists considered Europe’s baccalaureate system of education; with growing public interest in education, at the end of 20th century a state appointed three generals to improve the standards of teaching and education and at the beginning of 21st century a general was appointed to federally improve teaching and educational standards.)

In educational history interest in the teaching profession has been based on the status of teachers. Regard for teachers in late 20th century was highest in Russia where teachers enjoyed better employment terms than elsewhere.

(In Britain’s history of education, 1980s’ miss-projection of numbers of teachers needed necessitated engaging science graduates without teaching qualifications as teachers; but a status was enjoyed by teachers of regard as in Europe, and, about the end of 20th century, knighthood for long serving teachers was suggested –due to controversy over peerages it did not materialise. At the beginning of 21st century reducing undergraduate degrees to two years with vocational content was considered, with master’s for teachers -also non-major professional qualifications being above undergraduate degrees in National Vocational Qualifications; but Teachers’ status was regarded to have been equated for economical reasons to classroom assistants’ socially criticised for taking classes without professional teacher education and training.])

In the USA’s history of education, teaching has hailed a form of essentialism in education, with a culture of practicality and model citizenry, emphasising respect for authority (advocated also for 21st century British education); with no general minimum standard in teacher training and education, some states not recognising the teaching qualifications of some others, teachers and teaching appear officially to enjoy no higher regard then Bernard Shaw’s remark (about writers) “Those who can, do; those who can not, teach”.

(In the USA, e.g., some teachers paid only term time having to seek vacation work, teaching and teachers generally are regarded to have enjoyed less good terms and conditions than elsewhere in proportion to social regard and public resources.)

The growth of interest in culture and education in Western history of teaching has been seen in the European Union, e.g., in Cyprus with the popularisation of education in mid. 20th century -reportedly with highest percentage of university graduates by 21st.

In Western educational reforms spiritual values in education are protected by teaching religious studies in schools in American secularism (protection of religion from political influence) and by the religious affiliations of many universities; in European secularism (protecting against one’s formal dominance of the other), often with a state religion enshrined in the constitution, this is ensured by, e.g., Britain’s Education Acts’ requirement in compulsory education of religious worship by pupils at least once a month and, while British universities are not formally religiously affiliated, the availability of  chapels and chaplains to students at universities.

While preferences in education (e.g., the pedagogy based Steiner-Waldorf education for creating free moral and integrated individuals -its teachers’ and schools’ say on defining the curricula by some disagreed with, or Montessori’s pre-school and elementary school child’s self directed activities with auto-didactic equipment -regarded by some as risking raising obedient automatons), and  emphasis (be it practical skills or Emerson’s ‘thinking man’), have all had praise and criticism in the history of education and teaching and arguments continue on pragmatism and creation -v- evolution, generally Socrates’s argument that the rightly trained mind turns toward virtue carries weight in most educational systems. Basically, in every history of education, an important aim of education and the societies’ all time expectations have been on the lines of these verses (by the Cypriot teacher, the late Orhan Seyfi Ari):

” ‘I was an ape’ you say -or amphibian?
And now?! Are you not now.. ‘man’!? ”

The cultural values balance have been more reflected in the education and training of teachers in Western history of education and teaching and the status of teachers in Europe mostly in Spain, Italy and France where, without much disregard to spiritual values, school teachers’ political and ideological affiliations have been the norm in professional teaching.

Special education funding in California is causing deficit in school district budgets

School districts are required by federal law to pay for a large portion of special education programs and services.  These programs and services cannot be altered or cut in any way because it is federally mandated, unlike all other programs for the rest of the students. The short explanation is that federal law mandates it, as set forth in the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act  [20 USC 1400 et seq.].  This law, also called IDEA, enumerates the required needs for students with disabilities.  We all agree that students with special needs must be accommodated, additional care is necessary.  However, most of us do not know the details of the funding and spending on this issue.   In addition to the IDEA federal mandate, the State of California also sets forth special education funding apportionment in its Assembly Bill 602 SELPA [AB 602].If you read these codes on its face and believe that the state and federal government will fund the programs as set forth in the requirements, then you’re not alone.  Must of us assume that this mandated federal and state law will come from separate federal and state funds.  Most people who I asked assumed that special education is funded entirely by federal government disability funds.  It does make sense since it is a federally mandated requirement.  The state and federal statutes require schools to provide “free and appropriate public education” for special education students.   Here is the shocking news, local school districts are responsible for this “free and appropriate public education.”  In fact, IDEA section 1400(c)(6) cites that states and local education agencies are responsible for providing the education for students with disabilities, but that the Federal Government will have a role [emphasis added] in assisting the state and local education agencies.  If you sample a school district’s budget, you will find for example [PVPUSD] it receives $5,049M from the state [AB 602] in addition to the federal IDEA grant which is approximately $2M.  However, the actual costs for the special education programs in this district total approximately $22M.  This district has reported a deficit spending for special education in the sum of $12.5M which is almost double the amount it receives in funding from the federal government and state, combined.  This school district has to find and fund $12.5M in excess of the sum provided by the government funding.  How could special education needs add up to such a colossal amount and cause such a deficit for local school districts? In the code, you will find that required programs such as one-on-one aids are mandatory for each qualifying special needs child. Transportation, specialized at-home care and a host of other services are also required under the law.  I asked the California Department of Education why local school districts are not receiving more funding for special education requirements.  I asked how the local special education funding from the state is apportioned.  Becky Robinson of the CDE Special Education Department stated that “all funds, federal or state, must be approved by the governor.”  I checked, she is right.  The Budget Act of 2008-2009 AB 1781 (chapter 268) sets forth the budget for special education as determined by the state budget and the governor. At a time when teachers and administrative staff are being laid off en masse, it is difficult to understand why school districts are forced to spend an additional $12.5M on special education program requirements, when state budget cuts are forcing school districts to cut teachers and programs elsewhere.  $12.5M could solve all of the local budget woes and keep the teaching and administrative staff employed for the benefit of the entire school.  The answer is that special education programs are depleting the school districts’ budgets as administrators make cuts to prioritize the federally mandated programs for special education.  Another item for budget in the statute that I should mention, is the special needs education conflict and dispute resolution.  There are law firms that specialize in representing students with disabilities and negotiate the settlement for district’s alleged failure to comply with the established statutes and regulations under the federally mandated IDEA.  This means that the statutes for special education inherently set forth guidelines for legal action following administrative proceedings should a parent identify a violation of their child’s “free and appropriate public education.” Many school districts have greatly suffered from lawsuits brought by parents who claim that their special needs child’s rights were not met under the code.  Case in point, Porter v. Board of Trustees of Manhattan Beach Unified School District et al., 307 F. 3d 1064 (9th Cir. 2002), 537 U.S. 1194, 123 S. Ct. 1303, 154 L. Ed. 2nd 1029 (2003).

In the case of Porter, the parents of a student, who had been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, charged that  Manhattan Beach Unified School District failed to provide their child with a “free appropriate public education.”   This lawsuit resulted in the school district paying over $6.7M to the family of the student.  In addition, as part of the settlement, control of the student’s education was transferred to a Special Master, Ivor Weiner, Ph.D., resulting in the cost of just under $1.1M to pay for the education of the student at the direction of the Special Master.

The problem is that whether or not this school district properly complied with the federally mandated programs and services for this student, the school district was forced to make cuts elsewhere to pay for this legal settlement.   Why has the federal government mandated such broad standards for special education and then leave local school districts to oversee, manage and fund these programs?

Since the subject of budgets and special education is not a topic that people are willing to discuss, reform in this regard is unlikely.  Certainly, special education programs and services are not to blame for this problem.  This problem belongs squarely on the lap of the federal government under the mandated IDEA laws.

Still Don’t Know What a Charter School Is?

For over 22 years charter schools have existed in this country yet I am still asked the question: “Just what is a charter school?” Or worse, someone thinks they know what it is and their thoughts are far off base.  Not knowing and misinformation about charter schools is a common experience for many.  For those that do know, many in that group are divided about the values or dangers of the role charter schools play in education.


A charter school is a form of public education.  Each state legislates how the school is granted a charter to begin receiving public funds and how the school is held accountable.  Students enrolled in a charter school are the same as if they were enrolled in that state’s traditional public school.  Academic requirements, graduation requirements and all federal laws for public education are basically the same for a charter school student.  So, why bother? Why have two separate education systems?


Well, initially the thought was that by creating competition in the public school marketplace, parents were given a choice.  No longer was expensive private school tuition or homeschooling the only option a family had.  Charter schools were set loose to become innovative.  Many were created with the mission to replicate a better version of traditional schools.  Others were created with a specific mission of reaching a targeted group of students whose needs might not be met in a larger system.  For instance, one school in Texas was initially created to provide public school for a travelling group of student performers.  That school has since evolved to include any student performer.  Currently the trend seems to be aimed at reaching at-risk students that are not successful in traditional environments.


This education experiment has unleashed a plethora of problems.  Local authorities charged with overseeing charters weren’t clear what the rules would be and they issued charters to well-meaning educators that most often were not even told what those rules were either.  Everyone charged out of the gate with best intentions.  Rules changed, communication was weak or non-existing, training was poor and these infants in public education were left to run before they could walk and compete with public schools that in many case were in existence for over 100 years.


Charter holders recall events when their schools were sent state agency auditors to examine the school when the auditors themselves did not know what a charter school was.  Yet their reports would stand as the definitive evaluation of whether or not the school was performing to the standards that were required, standards that were not even applicable to the school in question.


In spite of all the growing pains, successful stories have sprung from many of the nations’ charter school students and their families.  Families without hope found success in the local community charter school specialized to meet their needs.  Charters are after all a school of choice, so many would ask why they are not left to free enterprise and rather than be held to the same standards as a traditional school, why not just let the free market determine their sustainability?  Why drain precious resources evaluating a school when the parents and students are fully capable of deciding?


Then there is the much more controversial question.  Are charter schools a danger to public education, as we know it?  Quite possibly. Competition and choice do bring change.  In this instance, the controversy lies in whether or not such change will benefit our futures.  While small community schools were the first wave of charter education, large corporate management companies have begun to see the financial benefit of owning and operating  “chain” schools across the country.  A small hand full of large investor/philanthropists such as the Walton’s (WalMart), the Dell foundation, the Gates Foundation and Michael Milken (formerly known as the junk bond king) are all heavily vested in the charter school industry.


With so much controversy, so much positive and negative publicity, it is a challenge for the small school model that was initially thought of as incubators of innovation in public education.  Today’s parent has access to so much information to make informed decisions about their child’s school.  Unfortunately, they may be reading more misinformation than they realize.

Recreation and Sports: A Break From Your Tiresome Body

Both recreation and sports are more than just for leisure time. As a matter of fact, as you do this kind of activity then you would surely enjoy the following benefits. To begin with,  you need to make sure that you allot some time to do this kind of activity because it does not just keep your physical wellness but as well as your social and even emotional well-being. It has been said that most people who live active lifestyle are most likely to be under stress. These activities can also be the best time for you to spend time with your family and friends. Engaging yourself in activities that invite happiness and peace of mind is simply the best thing that you can do.

Recreation and sports can even be the form of rest, entertainment and even adventure for you. If you think that you would just be wasting energy over it then think about escaping reality for a while, this will surely be the break that you have been longing for. This is the means of taking a refreshing break from the monotony life that you having. With the increasing pace of life, you may have become the participants of a never-ending rat race and you feel tired about it already. You sure need to be aware that you are living in that fast life, your destination keeps outdistancing you at the same time but when you do this kind of activity, and then you might just find an escape for it.

You might have been too busy that you feel like you do not have enough time for recreation and sports then you can just spare at least one day for it. You never really have to do it every single day of your life; you can just at least do it once a month. You need to remember all the time that these are more than just activities but rather an opportunity to take a break, the much-needed break from work. This will keep your health be in its best condition. This can also be the best time for you to develop a better relationship with your family and friends as well.

If you are still wondering on the importance that comes from recreation and sports then you can also consider the following things. First of all, these activities are plainly like rain shower during the days of scorching heat. It can keep you refresh even for just a short span of time.

Lastly, recreation and sports can be the best reward you can ever give yourself. You are working for long hours and through this you can at least give yourself to break and just enjoy life. Above anything else, you really need to be gentle to yourself because at the end of the day it is you who shall be in control of your life and not anybody else. You need these activities not only because you are stressed out but because it can keep your life balance.

Adult Education Diploma – Understanding The Value Of Life Long Learning

Interested to acquire new skills but hesitant that you are already 35 year old? Well, adult education diploma courses can be the ideal option for you in such a case. These are the courses which are especially designed for adults. They contain relevant course contents which can be perfectly implemented in practical lives too. The courses are formulated keeping in mind the industry standards and norms.


These are the courses which offer good quality education to adults, specially those who have not done their degree courses but are willing to advance their skills for better job opportunities in the industry. These courses help in improving one’s existing knowledge base and enhancing the expertise to do a particular task.


People seeking for adult education diploma can choose subjects such as administration, human resource and even teaching. These are some of the areas in which adults can pursue a short diploma course. In fact, adults can take up such a course to boost their career further. There are many who pursue consultancy jobs and training jobs in education sectors, after completing such adults education courses.


Moreover, if you feel that you need a career transition, you can take up such a course as well. For instance, if you are a junior trainer assisting a senior in an education environment, and want to seek a job as a senior trainer in a corporate sector, you can take up such a course and learn new skills and techniques to take up professional responsibilities in a highly competitive work environment. On the other hand, you might be working as an admin person in a small firm and want to work as a human resource person in a big corporate house, in such a case, you can take up an e-learning course in human resource and training, to further enhance your HR skills.


In addition, adult education courses can include subjects such as religious studies, business, health and medicine, public affairs, social sciences, fine arts and designs, and more. So if you are a painter who want to enhance his painting skills, can get himself enrolled for a course in fine arts. On the other hand, if you prefer to increase your knowledge of various religions, you can gain bountiful knowledge through an adult education course on religious studies.


Such courses are imparted in an open, flexible and organised learning environment. Therefore, learning is always fun and enriching. In fact, during such a course, a candidate is taught various ways to resolve a complex issue and different approached towards work. A candidate is also required to maintain good quality of the assessments and projects given to him. Moreover, interactive learning sessions also help candidates improve their inter-personal and communication skills. In addition to that, a learner is also required to take up assignments which needs analysing skills. This helps him improve his analysing capacity too.


If you feel that you need to enhance your skill set for a better job profile or career growth, adult education courses should be the best option for you.

Educational Mobile Apps For Kids

Education is a process of learning to improve ones knowledge, skills, values and habits. Apps are wonderful tools in these days to engage kids and young adults in this tecnological age. There are many free educational apps for kids. These free educational apps for kids help to support parents and educators in making students interested in learning.

There are so many apps in the Education category of the App Store, but trying to discover new apps can be time-consuming and unrewarding. You can find some of the best educational apps here based on our suggestions.

Cut the Rope Free:
Cut the rope to feed candy to little monster Om Nom®! 500 million downloads around the world of this phenomenal puzzle game. A mysterious package has arrived, and the little monster inside has only one request

The ABC Song:
An all in one collection of educational ABC activities and games, including the famous alphabet song in a vivid interactive and high quality production.

Preschool EduKidsRoom:
Amazing Fun Educational Games To Learn Colors, Shapes, Numbers, Letters, Time, Sorting and Much More!

Preschool Memory Match and Learn:
A unique, educational and fun Memory Match adventure, 130 items in 7 preschool categories with HD graphics and sounds. Preschool Memory Match is a comprehensive preschool activity of memory matching games.

The Wheels On The Bus:
An all in one activity center for children – complete child safe phone environment.Come and enjoy the classic song with your little ones. With 11 beautiful and colorful verses filled with fun interactions your children will play and learn at the same time!

The Seed:

The Seed lets children explore the Chinese world with their parents through a story on courage, educational mini-games and fun facts. With word highlights during narration and spot-on pronunciation

K12 Timed Reading & Comprehension Practice:

K12 Timed Reading & Comprehension Practice lets readers practice fluency, the ability to read smoothly and quickly, and comprehension, the ability to understand what was read

Kids Academy:

Learning to write has never been more fun! With Montessori Worksheets for Kids Free your kids will not only learn to write letters, but will also develop good handwriting skills

Reading Comprehension – Kindergarten :

Reading Comprehension for early reader. Short stories, reading layout that ‘s easy for the little kids to work with. – Super Reader is a simple educational program designed with young children grade K or 1 in mind

The Dream:

Designed by parents with kids in mind, The Dream makes a suitable casual, bedtime and homeschool read for children age 4 and above

Adult Education Courses Promote Both Personal And Professional Growth

There was a time when securing a job was considered to be the finish line for one’s academic career. Times have changed. Constant learning has become a necessity to increase chances of professional success. However, as an individual grows, his willingness and ability to learn get affected by the increasing complexities of life. For constant development of a person’s skills and knowledge, it is of much importance that he never loses his love for learning. Adult education can help boost self-efficacy and self-confidence of a person. This form of learning can help an adult identify his latent talents and characteristic strengths. It can help him realise that the process of learning is not restricted to any age.
Participating in continuing education courses provide individuals with chances to improve both in professional and personal aspects of their lives. Adults find new prospects highly motivational. New scopes encourage adults to develop interest and dedication for learning. Thus, this form of training revives the joy of learning in those who have previously parted ways with formal education.
Enrolling in adult education courses have some distinct benefits –

  • Personal development: Developing one’s skills and nurturing new ideas are necessary for self-improvement. And self-improvement is a process which ideally should not stop at any age. One’s preferences and interests tend to change with time. Adult learning can give an individual a clear idea about what would suit his current preference, which may or may not be similar to what he liked previously. This new realisation can reveal new dimensions to his character and help him reach his full potential.
  • Professional development: Constant professional development is necessary to stay ahead of one’s own competition. It is practically impossible to learn everything there is to learn about a profession at the beginning of one’s career. Adult education can help upgrade one’s skills and make them more time-appropriate. Widening one’s knowledge base can lead to promotions. The better an employee’s’ skills and knowledge are, the more important he is to the employer.
  • Confidence booster: Simply put, learning is empowering. The more one knows, the more one’s chances of success in life are. Higher number of achievements help raise one’s self-confidence and self-esteem.

  • Better quality of life: Adult education can significantly improve one’s quality of life. Developing new skills can broaden his horizon. While better job opportunities can improve one’s standard of living, sense of fulfillment can protect him from mental issues like depression.
  • Valuable networking opportunities: Developing one’s skillsets can provide one with various opportunities to network and build new relationships, especially in the professional sector. While studying for an adult education diploma, one gets the chance to meet experienced consultants and fellow learners which can later help him in both professional and personal capacity.

The joy of learning does not, and should not become inaccessible suddenly after one gets a high-school or college diploma and then secures a job. Learning is for life. There are new things to learn everywhere, everyday. Constant learning should not be viewed as an option. It is a necessity. With adaptable learning options easily available online, one must not pass up this chance to become better, both as a person and a professional.

Adults’ Education Courses Can Help You On Both Professional And Personal Fronts Of Life

There was once a time when securing a job was considered to be the right time for an individual to bid adieu to his academic career. Ideally that should not be the case. Learning cannot be restricted to a particular phase of an individual’s life. It is a lifelong process and should be continued for as long as possible. Adults, especially the employed ones, hardly ever consider continuing their formal education for as long as they can. This is because they either do not consider it necessary to continue their studies after having secured jobs or they do not have the time to go back to studies. More often than not, it is the latter.


It is true that with increasing age, life’s responsibilities and complications also increase, which usually leave adults pressed for time. However, being pressed for time should not change one’s decision to return to formal learning. If an individual is willing to study further, for as long as he wants, he can enrol in online adults’ education courses.


Like almost every other industry, the education industry has also gone online. While the conventional form of education is still as important and popular as ever, online education has also gained much popularity since the last few decades. Online courses have made it possible for working adults to get back to studies without having to compromise on their existing commitments.

  • Online adults’ education courses make it possible for busy adults to attend classes from anywhere at a time that is convenient for them. They do not need to wait at a campus all day long to attend a lecture or two.
  • Examinations are conducted online and results and feedback are provided quickly. Therefore, learners get to know exactly where they need to improve and this understanding enables them to perform better next time.
  • These courses are quite compact and impart only the knowledge that the learner wants to know rather than focusing on theories and experiments.
  • Online programmes do not set any academic or professional criteria and are fairly affordable. Thus, all one needs to pursue them is the willingness to learn more.


There are many ways in which continuing education can help adults, on both the professional and personal fronts of their lives.

  • Getting an adult education diploma can add much weight to the learner’s resume. It can increase his employability in competitive job sectors. Besides, enhanced knowledge and skills can help him perform better at his work. Therefore, he can be better equipped to earn salary hikes, promotions or even switch jobs, if needed.
  • These courses can sharpen the learner’s understanding, analytical, communication and decision-making skills. The better decisions he makes, the more likely he is to succeed in life. Success can boost his confidence and self-esteem.
  • Getting a better paying job can help him to fund a more affluent lifestyle for himself and his loved ones. The ability to do so can instill happiness in him and a happy individual, usually, does not suffer from depression.


Adult education aims at improving the overall lifestyle of the learner, as every aspect of his life is connected to the other. Adult and community education courses are also available, which aim to develop the community as a whole, through group studies and activities. These courses can even open up new opportunities for retired adults or those, who have not held a job previously.

Positive Effects of Video Games on Children

Video games can be served as a tool to educate children instead of giving entertainment only. The learning video apps are designed specifically to train children before they start their school. The learning video games can also teach a specific subject like English, science, and mathematics. Educational games makes it easy to educate preschoolers who doesn’t show any interest in books.

In this word of technology, children should be exposed to new technology to have an experience about how to use it positively. These games can introduced them with technology and let them know how to use it. This is one of the advantages of video games, you can see more benefits of educational video games below.


Motivation to learn

Learning games can motivate children to get familiar with new things. They starts liking the new challenges and pay interest even in those subjects that are thought to be difficult ones. Video games actually help them in understanding the subject easily. The plus point of video games is that children pay more attention, which helps in learning swiftly. Educational games provide exactly what is required to motivate little kids towards education.

Educational entertainment

With the educational video games, leaning and entertainment goes side by side. This new way of learning is full of fun and entertainment, which improves the child interest towards education. They never feel bored while learning difficult subjects as it is linked with the pure entertainment. Also, they start paying interest in those subjects just because of learning apps.

Learn how to interact with people

While playing the video games, children learn how to interact with people as some games allows you to chat with your companions. They become familiar with how to make new relations and how to maintain them. If there is not chat option, still they can learn how to interact because they keep sharing their progress with others.

Kids also come to know that they have to follow the rules with patience, which leaves a good impact on their personality. They also learn how to accept their defeat and how to enjoy their success. Eventually, you can say that video games help in grooming the personality of children.

Improve memory skills

With colorful graphics and cool sound features, children get attracted towards rhyming words games. Eventually, they memorize instantly what is heard and seen during the game. The start memorizing new things at great pace, which improves their overall mental ability.

Home Schooling vs Public Education


For many families, home schooling children is a viable alternative to public education for several important reasons: Strengthening the family, providing adequate education, and to promote moral and religious values. With a perceived declining in the educational quality of the public school system in America, many parents are coming to the belief that homeschooling can offer their children a better education and result in better opportunities later on in life. Educational Effects of Homeschooling Research on homeschooling thus far strongly supports the thoughts of homeschooling parents. An extensive nationwide study showed that home schooled students outperformed their public and private school counterparts in every category. In fact, many homeschool students are enrolled in a grade level that is higher than their counterparts of the same age. Home schooled children have a higher rate of high school graduation, a higher rate of college attendance, and a higher rate of college graduation. Homeschooling is About More Than the Education But for some families, a better education isn’t the only reason to homeschool. Protection from the harsh world that encourages deviation from a successful path is another, as is the opportunity to strengthen the family. The teen years are an extremely important time in the family building process. Spending six to eight hours away from the home can be very detrimental to a teen’s ability to cement family relationships. Over time, subtle changes can erode family relationships, especially during the more tumultuous adolescent and teen years. By providing a homeschool education, parents can prevent this erosion and help strengthen the family bond.


Additionally, many people believe that public education is not up to the standards that a home school education can provide. No one is more invested in a child’s education than his parents and a home school curriculum can help a child’s ability to learn. For instance, a school teacher may grade your child’s paper and tell him which answers are correct, and which are incorrect and leave it at that. But parents who are homeschooling their children, can spend time to explain to them why the answers are right and wrong, in order to help them learn more thoroughly. Also, many parents believe that a child’s educational curriculum should include not only academic learning, but also the teaching of morals, ethics, and values. According to recent polls, about 77 percent of Americans identify themselves as Christians. Christian values are an important part of our functioning society and providing children with home schooling is a great way to ensure that they are social and moral values in addition to academic learning.

New Pell Grants And $10,000 Scholarships Are Being Offered To Moms

President Obama is urging moms to get back in school. A new program, Scholarships for Moms is being offered by Obama to increase jobs during the current economical recession. Moms can now obtain a larger $5,500 Federal Pell Grant to begin the college journey. Moms, single or not maybe able to afford the college costs with the additional assistance. The cost of moms attending college is also being aided with other various denomination scholarships created by the President. To those who qualify for the Pell grant, the $5,500 will go towards achieving a higher degree, allowing moms to find better work and stimulate the economy. Of course, moms are arguably the busiest people on the planet, so online education is always an option. When the kids are asleep mom goes into motion as a college student. Certified classes are available at city colleges as well at full colleges and universities along with on line educational sites that specialize in degree programs. A $10,000 scholarship will be offered to the moms who did not qualify for the Pell grant. Only a small amount of moms will receive this scholarship because there are so many moms applying for the prize. Back to school moms require the scholarship money to offset the numerous expenses of going to college. Along with allowing Americans the opportunity to achieve a higher education, this will help stimulate the deteriorating economy. The $10,000 scholarship will most likely not pay for the entire tuition for all moms, so they will in turn invest their money in education, helping to bring the economy back to a thriving state. In corporate business the degree determines the job and future advancement. Moms are improving themselves and their families by working for a college degree and a better position in life. This scholarship program is so popular that it has a very positive image attached to it. The America dream seems reachable to many moms when they pursue their college career later in life through the scholarship program. A place to call home without the worry of landlord intervention is most moms greatest dream. A mom knows that a solid job is required to purchase a home and that can come about when you get a better education that demands a greater salary. Moms are helping the economy of the country by improving the education through the scholarship program. Hope and dreams come alive when moms see the possibility of a gift to educate and reach a goal that was off the screen just a moment ago. Obama rejuvenating the moms scholarship and grant program has contributed to making better, wiser and more educated moms able to take care of their families and building a bridge to the business world. Moms need to register to be eligible for the monthly drawing that determines the scholarship winners. Moms, especially single moms know how hard it is to go back to college.

Obama Offers Scholarships And Grants For Mothers To Go Back To School


Money seems to be the main reason that mothers can’t return back to school. If you are in that situation, rest assured that you are not alone. Many moms today find themselves in those same circumstances today.

However, it doesn’t have to be an impossible dream. In fact, under the changes made through the Obama administration, there are better grants and scholarships available for moms. Returning to school can be a very realistic goal for mothers.

Mothers of all types – single moms, working moms, handicapped moms, online moms, busy moms – can take advantage of these new opportunities. The United States government is doing everything it can right now to help these moms return to school and get the college degree they want and need.

There are many things to consider about going back to school. First of all, a scholarships and grants do not need to be repaid. This is money that is given to you specifically for your education. Also, this money does not just have to go for tuition. It can be used for other expenses related to your education. The Pell grant amount has also been increased to $5,500 which gives moms even more money for their educational needs. Also, this can all be done through online classes, allowing moms to stay home, take care of their children and get their degrees!


The Obama plan makes everyone a winner by giving moms the opportunity to get more education, thus get better jobs, which will enable them to pay their bills and also have the self-esteem to pursue the career choices they have always wanted.

Did you know you can get $10,000 in scholarships for moms toward any school for free and just for registering? Apply right now for free: Scholarships for Moms.


The Socioeconomic Impact of Charters Schools in Texas



              Due to the decline in the quality of public education in Texas, state lawmakers passed legislation in 1995. The new law permitted the opening and implementation of charter schools. These new charters schools encourage and support innovative teaching for a variety of learning styles, improve the achievement of students, and provide options within the public school system (Terry and Alexander 2008, 4). Prior to the new legislation, there was no opportunity for choice within the public school system with regard to a child’s education, and children attended school according to their zip code. That deficiency began to change when the first charter school in Texas opened in the fall of 1996.

The Texas Education Agency (TEA) reports that the “first generation” of charters consisted of 17 schools and had a collective population of 2,412 students. Legislation initially limited open-enrollment charters to 20 schools; however, lawmakers increased the cap to 100 schools in 1997 and to 215 schools in 2001 (Story 2007, 1). As of 2007, Texas had one of the largest and most flexible charter school programs in the United States (Story 2007, 1). Currently, Texas charter schools serve over 113,000 students, an estimated two percent of all public school students.  Moreover, of those 113,000 students in charter schools, 80 percent are minority and 60 percent are economically disadvantaged students (Terry and Alexander 2008, 7).

Research Analysis-Lifting the Cap:

The State of Texas currently has 210 active open-enrollment charter schools.  In addition, Texas will likely reach the cap of 215 open-enrollment charter schools by 2009. If the cap remains in place, many parents and children will be at a disadvantage, unable to choose the best quality education for their families. Many charter education supporters have and will continue to push for greater parental control and increased accountability with an emphasis on improved public relations. However, these supporters encounter a lot of resistance, because opponents see charter schools as competition to the public schools.  Consequently, increased restrictions and mandates stifle charter school growth.

If the Texas government and the education policy stakeholders review the statistical findings and evaluate the impact of open-enrollment charter schools in Texas, they will find a clear picture of the positive outcomes charter schools provide. It becomes apparent through the examination of the economic and social factors of open-enrollment charter schools that lifting the cap on the number of open-enrollment charter schools in Texas would be beneficial to the current public school system.

Contrary to common public perception, charter schools are public schools.  Similar to public schools, charter schools cannot charge tuition according to state law. However, “charter schools have a significant amount of autonomy and are free to be innovative in educational and administrative practices,” as stated on the Resource Center for Charter Schools (Technology Help for Administrators 2008).  Before a charter school in Texas breaks ground, the entity must submit a proposal, similar to a business proposal, for approval, which typically includes a mission statement, a philosophy and a vision. Furthermore, the proposal provides information regarding basic logistics, including class size, number of school days and hours, the programs that will service students and a projected budget. On many occasions, charter schools seek the help of outside agencies to provide guidance, classroom modeling, in-house training, and resources in order to assist in achieving the mission. For example, an open-enrollment charter school in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania used a research based program / agency from San Francisco, California called the “Developmental Studies Center” (DSC). The DSC trained the faculty, provided resources and provided ongoing support in order to achieve the school’s mission and goal. In fact, the school bases its philosophy on a democratic model that gives students a voice, which promotes and fosters the students’ academic, social, and emotional growth. Significantly, this school recognizes the existence of multiple intelligences and diverse learning styles. One program that addresses the choice of students and multiple intelligences is the choice of electives for all of the student population once a week. They also incorporate a “service learning program” to assist in molding stewards of the community (Service Learning Programs, 2008).

Similarly, in Houston, Texas, “KIPP (Knowledge is Power Program) Academy Houston,” whose mission is to “help…students develop academic skills, intellectual habits, and qualities of character necessary to succeed in high school, college, and the competitive world beyond” is a very successful charter school that services grades 5-8 (U.S. Department of Education 2008).  Texas recognized it as an “exemplary school” every year since 1996, and the U.S. Department of Education recognized it as a “Blue Ribbon” school. The dedication of its teachers and administrators, including being on call by way of cell phone 24/7 to address the academic needs of students led to this success of the charter school (U.S. Department of Education 2008).  This innovative dedication would not be something conducive to the public school sector.  In view of the fact that employees of mainstream public schools, are subject to collective bargaining and union contracts, have set hours and specific responsibilities in their contracts and do not deviate from them.

By employing the flexibility of the charter program and by working outside the traditional eight hours of instructional time for students, the American Youth Works in Austin, Texas is a charter school that is able to better focus on the unique needs of its students. The school allows students half a day to pursue employment opportunities, to participate in work study programs or to take care of family members, including the students’ own children. The school requires the students to fulfill only four hours of traditional instructional time in order to accommodate the individual’s life experience (Terry and Alexander 2008, 4).

Other charter schools may extend the school day in order to improve academic achievement or may extend the school year to expose the students to supplemental material and expanded learning. Equally important, a mission aimed at addressing the varied learning styles through the theory of multiple intelligences may be the goal of another charter school. There are even charter schools that focus on the arts, architecture and design, leadership, and literacy. Charter schools generally do not fit the traditional model of the mainstream public school; instead, they find ways to educate children and stimulate learning based on innovative ideas and strategies.

When a charter is operating, the entity will receive direct funding from the state and the federal government. However, charters do not receive funding for their facilities, so it is up to the charter school to raise money, solicit donations, apply for startup grants from the federal government or choose to borrow from private lenders (Terry and Alexander 2008, 5).

Terry states, in a “GO San Angelo” article, that charter schools may not charge tuition, teach religion, discriminate, or cherry-pick students (Terry 2008, 1). To elaborate, if a charter school encourages families to volunteer 20 hours of their time to help with various needs of the school such as painting, helping in the classroom, making packets, cleaning, etc., the school cannot in any way enforce this as a “requirement.” If a family is penalized in any way, such as a student being removed from school for incompletion of hours, it would be considered payment for education. Moreover, charter schools may not discriminate in the enrollment of students or cherry-pick, select a student based on academic performance, behavior, or other preferential selection, its admissions..

Charter schools require different regulations compared to traditional public schools (Terry and Alexander 2008, 5). An example is that charter schools, as opposed to mainstream public schools, require teachers to provide parents and guardians of students in their school with a written notice of their qualifications. Another example of the differences in regulation is under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Federal Regulation Part 300, which reauthorizes the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA). Originally, law required charter schools to provide and complete academic testing for a child within 60 school days from the date of a request from a parent or guardian, while it required traditional public schools to provide and complete the same within 60 calendar days.  Under the reauthorization, the requirement changed to 60 school days for both public and charter schools. Before this became universal for both mainstream public and charter schools, it was a disadvantage for the charter schools to adhere to the time restraint because it was more difficult in terms of the high cost of academic testing and limited funding.

To be sure, accountability is universal for district public schools and charter schools, as the pressure of No Child Left Behind impacts both sectors of education. Both are required to administer standardized tests, and all students must test at their current grade level rather than their level of ability. For instance, an eighth grader who is reading at a third grade level must take the eighth grade reading standardized test.

According to the article “Texas Charter Schools: An Assessment in 2005”, produced by the Texas Public Policy Foundation, “when student performance is evaluated on the basis of test scores, students in Texas charter schools perform on the average lower than do students in traditional public schools. However, when changes in test scores are used to judge performance, academic gains by charter school students can be demonstrated” (Patterson 2005, 5). This means that even though some charter school students’ performance does not exceed the performance of traditional public schools according to standardized test results, the students are individually making better academic progress in the charter schools. In addition, because most charter schools typically specialize in helping disadvantaged youth, many students in charter schools identify as an at-risk population for dropping out of school and come from low income homes which could hinder their test performance (Terry and Alexander 2008, 5). Accordingly, basing decisions of success on standardized test scores is an unfair assessment of charter school performance.

Currently, the government enforces some regulation on charter schools that forces them to shut down if they have two consecutive years of undesirable performance, which typically measures by standardized test scores. This is harsher and inequitable compared to the five years allowed for the mainstream public school districts (Terry and Alexander 2008, 5). For example, a charter school may be able to improve a fifth grade student whose reading level is equivalent to third grade but still fail with unacceptable performance because the student failed the fifth grade Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test reading section (Terry and Alexander 2008, 1).

During the 2007-2008 school years, 113,760 students enrolled in charter schools in Texas, and an estimated 16,810 students were on a waiting list (Terry and Alexander 2008, 4). Houston’s regional charter school’s waiting list was the largest at 7,415 students; coming in second was the Dallas / Fort Worth region at 5,896 students, and Rio Grand Valley had 2,110 students.  Furthermore, the Austin region had a waiting list of 623; the Corpus Christi region had a waiting list of 159; and the San Antonio region had a waiting list of 488 students (Terry and Alexander 2008, 4). According to Robelen, since these numbers stem from a survey in which only half of the schools participated, the actual number of students on a waiting list for charter schools in Texas is likely higher (Robelen 2008, 1).

The large number of students on the waiting lists for charter school enrollment demonstrates the significant demand for educational options, which is the fundamental purpose of the legislation for charter schools. The rapidly growing number of students on waiting lists demonstrates the need for lawmakers to lift the cap limiting the number of charter schools in Texas.  When a charter school has more applicants than they can allow, an enrollment lottery determines which students will be attending the upcoming school year.  Terry asks readers to “imagine parents, whose child is trapped in a low-performing public school, crying for joy that their child is randomly selected to attend a school with a track record of serving at-risk students with innovative strategies” (Terry 2008, 1). On the other hand, one can imagine the cries of a parent whose child is a student in a low-performing public school when their child looses the enrollment lottery.

There are four different types of charter schools: open-enrollment charters, district charters, university charters, and home-rule district charters. Open-enrollment charter schools service the largest population, 89,156 students as of the 2007-2008 school year. Open-enrollment charters are by definition independent school units and can have multiple campuses. The school district operates the district charter schools that consisted of 23,275 students in the 2007-2008 school years. University charters are generally in operation at public senior university or college and consisted of 1,329 students attending 19 different university charter schools in 2007-2008. Furthermore, a home-rule charter means districts have the ability to convert into charter school status which includes an extensive voting process. There is no cap on the number of district charters; however, there are no home-rule charter schools operating in Texas (Terry and Alexander 2008, 3).

Open enrollment charter schools do not drain financial resources from mainstream public schools because they do not receive state funding. In fact, the excess money in the state education budget applies to the student’s home district and the neighboring school where the child resides. For example, in the 2005-2006 school year, the cost per student in Texas was $9,629; charter schools were given approximately $1,500 less per student (Terry and Alexander, 2008a, 1). Thus, operating a charter school saves the district money in educating a child because charter schools expend less money per child.

Because charter schools receive less money per student compared to mainstream school districts in Texas, it is necessary for charter schools to incorporate fund raising into their fiscal plans. Moreover, charter school fundraising brings more dollars into the public sector.  According to the National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, in Illinois the total of public and private funding for charter schools brought in a total of $11 million dollars to help educate the youth. In addition, charter schools introduce new resources into public education. Grants provide funds designed for charter schools phases such as, planning, development, and initial implementation which are not available to the public school system if charter schools were not in existence (National Alliance for Public Charter Schools 2008).

It is incorrect for the districts in Texas to believe that charter schools negatively impact their bottom line or hinder their budgetary plan. In the event of the opening of a new charter school, the state provides the district with short term financial aids in order to prevent an impact on the school district revenue (National Alliance for Public Charter Schools 2008). Because charter schools typically enroll a diverse student body with a variety of characteristics, the fiscal impact is a factor of enrollment only (National Alliance for Public Charter Schools 2008). In addition, public and charter schools receive a percentage of money for students with disabilities; therefore, the public district receives an even higher amount than the $1,500 per special education student.  Finally, socioeconomic factors dictate funding for individual students and services offered (National Alliance for Public Charter Schools 2008).

Districts can easily reduce expenses to adapt to charter schools. The National Alliance for Charter Schools, reports that school districts can often adjust to student enrollment fluctuations-where there may be some key adjustments the first year, the following years have little to no impact on the school district (National Alliance for Public Charter Schools 2008).   The National Alliance for Charter Schools also believes that if a charter school is thriving, and the district cannot adjust to the fluctuation in enrollment, it is likely due to the district’s own failed policies and rules (National Alliance for Public Charter Schools 2008).

Charter schools in Texas increase the employment of teachers in the district as well. Many teachers struggle to obtain a teaching position once they graduate and charter schools open the doors for many of these qualified teachers to find a job in education. The state law only requires teachers to be state certified to work in a charter school if they specialize in special education or bilingual education (Terry and Alexander 2008a, 6). The state government in Texas does not require charter schools to employ certified teachers, but many choose to do so, especially with the shortage of teaching opportunities. Story supports this by stating statistics that show charter schools employ 26 percent of new teachers in the field compared to traditional public schools, which employ a mere 7 percent respectively (Story 2007, 3). In addition, charter schools can impact the traditional school district in a positive way by reducing the need for districts to hire new teachers by eliminating overcrowding, which reduces the average cost of hiring and training a new teacher, estimated to be about $8,000 per teacher (The National Alliance for Charter Schools 2008).

The impact of charter schools in the community’s economic and social growth is rapidly increasing. As stated earlier, charter schools do not receive funding for facilities from the state, however the districts that have charters schools receive and excess of approximately $1,500 per student that attends a charter school.  Therefore, without the funding for a facility, charter schools renovate, remodel and/or rehabilitate existing property within a community in order to accommodate students. Having a charter school residing in a neighborhood has the potential to generate tax revenue and increase the value of real estate (National Alliance for Public Charter Schools 2008).

The National Alliance for Public Charter Schools also suggests that if charter schools are successful in educating students, it can reduce the dropout rate in high schools and increase college admissions and graduates. Texas seems to have a high dropout rate, and those students who graduate do not have the communication and math skills necessary for college and require remedial math and reading programs to qualify for admission to college (Terry and Alexander 2008, 4). One of the most successful schools in Texas is a charter school that reduced their dropout rates dramatically under the direction of the mission of their charter.

These charter schools often provide a safe haven for youth by providing aftercare and tutoring. Importantly, charter schools often give communities a sense of pride. Many charter schools offer Boy Scouts of America, sports, and other programs in order to facilitate teambuilding, self esteem, and help foster a sense of community, and growth in a child. Some charter schools open their doors for tutoring and mentoring on Saturdays to offer extra assistance as well as a safe setting for young learners. However, these programs are uncommon in the traditional public school district setting mostly because of the contract and collective bargaining processes of the districts. Charter schools have the ability to add the extra touches that impact students without the political constraints that traditional district schools face.

While charter schools do not seem like they would pose a significant threat to the financial operations of the public school system in Texas, there are some risks associated with the existence of charter schools. Because most charter schools operate like a business, there is a risk of misappropriation and improper allocation of funds. In addition, misconduct of administrators, teachers, and entities involved with a particular charter school could lead to a negative reputation of charter schools as a whole. However, limiting the number of charter schools based on isolated incidents of illegal activity, inappropriate behavior or misuse of power could prove to be harmful to the education system. Misconduct can develop in any entity, including public school districts.

Research shows that students from a traditional public school who attend charter schools for a period of two or three years improve more rapidly than students in the traditional public school district (Terry and Alexander 2008, 5). Not using a growth based system to measure the amount of growth, a student is able to obtain in the course of a year in the state accountability system is causing charter school to seem deficient (Terry and Alexander 2008, 5). Research from the “Texas Charter Schools: An Assessment in 2005” produced by the Texas Public Policy Foundation, shows that students who left traditional public schools to attend charter schools performed better on average than they would have if they were still attending the traditional public school (Patterson 2004, 32). Thus, the correlation of charter schools and student achievement is significant, and students will benefit from the removal of the charter school cap in Texas.

Charter schools provide competition with the mainstream district schools which provides an unwanted positive impact on the district schools. It forces district schools to exhibit more accountability of staff and teachers and puts pressure on them to increase student performance. If the schools are functioning at low levels, parents or guardians will feel the need to remove their child from the district school by applying to a charter school. If lawmakers remove the cap and more options are available to parents and guardians, more choices for education will be accessible to students and parents. In addition, the competition between charter schools and public schools will cause school districts to increase their overall academic performance.

Patterson asserts the bottom line for charter schools in Texas as follows:

Charter schools are a valuable alternative to traditional public schools (Patterson 2005, 1).

Charters are especially effective with disadvantaged students (Patterson 2005, 1).

Charters challenge traditional public schools to improve student performance (Patterson 2005, 1).

Charters do a better job with high school students and alternative education programs (Patterson 2005, 1).


The benefits a charter school can provide to the district public schools, parents, students, and the community significantly outweighs any negative impact charters may cause. The Texas legislature should eliminate the cap of 215 charter schools which prevents charter schools to operate in a free market (Terry and Alexander, 2008, 1). The 16,810 or more students on the waiting lists for charter schools prove the demand for charter schools. This demand, viewed in light of the current issues facing traditional public schools, proves that charter schools are working well in improving the quality of education. Many education analysts believe that the quality of a charter school education will increase overtime. Unless this demand meets the supply, tens of thousands of students will remain in an environment that may not promote academic, emotional or social growth. Equally important, these students will not thrive in their current placement and could regress to the extent of becoming an at-risk youth who could potentially drop out of high school, leading to a grim future. This proposed reform of lifting the cap could be an immense opportunity for Texas to become a leader in the charter school movement. The Texas public school system could stop the increase of real estate taxes to invest money in failing districts and make the choice to provide additional educational resources for the children of the state.

            The bureaucracy that places a barrier to student learning and student performance is unconscionable. A simple solution to the education crisis Texas is facing would be to lift the cap while continuing to monitor all educational institutions. It is in the best interests of the child to allow parents and guardians to make the choice of where their child should attend school to get the best free, appropriate public education possible. The main purpose of the charter school legislation in 1995 was to give that choice to Texas citizens. That freedom no longer exists for thousands of citizens in Texas because of the cap on charter schools. Given the overwhelming evidence that charter schools are socioeconomically beneficial, lawmakers in Texas should increase or remove the cap altogether and make charter schools available to all of its citizens in 2009.

Grants For Stay At Home Dads Makes Things Simpler

The global economy has taken a rather unpleasant downturn that is continuously pressuring low to middle class Americans, especially single parents, to the limit that it has rather affected their standards of living. Single dads are usually struggling and working themselves out to earn a reasonable sum of money that can cope with their children’s needs. Adding up to their burdens, lack of school degrees usually corners them to accept low paying jobs. Grants for stay at home dads are now available and can help those who are eager to earn a degree that can add up to their earnings.

The new Federal Pell Grant has been lately increased and is now available for thousands of eligible American citizens. The Presidents new administration has passed a new bill that has increased the sum of funds offered to finance educational programs to 4300 dollars per eligible candidate. Moreover, the new federal grant is now financing learn-from-home online programs. So, eligible single fathers can learn from home at ease without even having to leave their homes.

Many might still have their drawbacks against online learning and are reluctant to engage in such programs. On the other hand, recent cohort studies have proven that those who earn their degrees through E-learning programs usually perform better on the work market. The recent advancement of the internet and interactive techniques has revolutionized distant online learning. E-learning is now available for single dads in almost every state in America.

The so-called virtual online class can help every learner interact effectively with peers and online tutors. A student can see and listen to his tutor live while he is giving his/her lecture. Moreover, after taking permission, a student can interrupt his tutor and ask a question. The virtual class is much like a real life class and even more has proven lately to yield more successful results.

Eligibility for receiving federal educational grants should be examined by filling a free application for federal student aid form (FAFSA). The FAFSA form can now be easily filled through the official FAFSA website. Proof of your financial status should be accurately documented by presenting the right legal papers. Moreover, filling the FAFSA form helps you to identify schools and colleges that are available for applicants and fit their budgets.

Grants for stay at home dads are opening new horizons for those dads whose social circumstances are preventing them from earning their degrees. The newly boosted Federal Pell Grant is inviting single dads to learn from home to earn a better standard of living

Educational Parking Games

Included in this are the most popular racing online games together with more unconventional games where you do stunts in your cars. There is absolutely no arguing with the age outdated statement of which boys will be boys, particularly if an individual take a look at their particular choice of online games. Whenever enjoying the racing games you’ll jump at the rear of the steering wheel of a speedy and brilliant car or truck therefore you would certainly reach in many different places. The games will certainly mess up you together with a number of amazing courses, fantastic crashes and challenging road blocks in order to cause it to all the more thrilling.

While you races around a good try to defeat your competitors, improving lap periods and striving not to crash, you simply create more enjoyable moment of the games. One thing that many individuals do not understand is these types of online games could also possess a beneficial educational impact. It truly is simply no secret that many youngsters usually are not serious about regular methods for learning. Usually you will discover that online games which are not necessarily formulated with any kind of educational purposes in mind truly and offer additional benefits. Your decision making will certainly benefit significantly from car or truck online games because you have to immediately respond to the circumstances your must encounter. There are actually simply different situations you can experience frequently in which it is vital.

Your reflexes together with your hand eye co-ordination may also certainly enhance if playing games this way. People today usually view a new competitive nature to be a negative idea; nonetheless I believe this can be a little short sighted. There are actually just a great number of occasions in life in which you’ll want to be competitive, so just why definitely not do it very well? In the event you frequently deal with competitive circumstances, just like participating in car or truck online games, you’ll be able to compete a whole lot better later on in your life whenever it matters a lot more. Participating in car or truck online games must nonetheless not necessarily occupy your entire time. In the event young children just simply have fun with car online games, they might certainly not grow in some other essential areas; nonetheless this can be a beneficial instrument. It’s not at all a big deal that you should keep the young children from playing games, however you must make sure they do it within bounds.


ITL Public School – One Of The Best Schools In Dwarka

Dwarka is one of the planned urban societies in the Delhi NCR. It is one of the largest residential areas that are developed in the recent past. The authorities of the region follow a zero tolerance policy towards misuses of land and other unlawful activities that can happen in the region. All the modern facilities and services are available there in the area, so that the residents of the area do not face any kind of problems in searching for any kind of services in Dwarka. Some of the world class services that are provided in Dwarka include educational services, medical services and transportation services along with well planned urban residential region. Dwarka do have various state of art infrastructure coming up in the next few years which include stadiums, colleges and various government offices. After all the upcoming projects get completed, then Dwarka will one of most preferred areas in the country to live in.

The educational services that are provided in the schools, colleges and institutes of the region are of world class with all modern facilities and infrastructure, and curriculum that matches international standards. There are various schools in the region but still ITL Public School apart from the other schools. ITL Public School was established few years back but has taken a great leap as compared to the other schools which are established at the same time when the same school is established.ITL Public School is a recognized Co-educational Air Conditioned Sr. Sec. School that has been affiliated to CBSE up to XII with Science and Commerce streams. An institution meticulously planned by leading luminaries in the field of Education like Mr. Shomie Das, Former Principal, Mayo College and Lawrence School Sanawar, Padamshri Dr. R.S.Lugani, founder Principal, DPS R K Puram as an advisor.

The educational block is characteristic of spacious corridors, beautiful theme-based classrooms that are well-lit, sound proof, air-conditioned and commodious. ITLeens dwell on the undisputable pleasures gained from music and dance. They explore the elegant world of Bhaav, Taal, Mudras and Nritya in addition to the melodic symphony in especially designed music and dance room that bring them closer to the cultural associations of these performing arts. The learning Resource Centre is equipped with CD-ROM workstations, magazines, periodicals and other educative books & reference books to facilitate & widen the horizon of ITLeens. A 200m track, a football/hockey field, a semi- Olympic size swimming pool, Lawn Tennis, Badminton, Table Tennis, Basketball Courts and a skating ground are the special features of our school. The school canteen provides hygienic & nutritional refreshment at reasonable fixed rates. Students are permitted to have refreshments only during the recess period. The School provides bus service for transporting children to the school on approved bus routes. All buses are fully air-conditioned. The school has a SMS and E-mail facility where in any kind of important & urgent messages can be communicated to the parents immediately. You can admit your child with any second thought, if the area of Dwarka is reachable by you.

Adult Education- Introduction

If we talk about Adult education then it simply sticks on giving education to adults. In this adults are trained and developed in certain vocations or subjects for certain reasons. Adult education is not same as education system has been built for younger individuals just because in adult education different techniques of teaching is being employed such as to capitalize the accumulated knowledge and life experience as an adult person can use his life experience to understand a thing. It is also being quite common that adults are enrolling in many online adult education programs. This education technique is quite a lot beneficial for adults as it is more convenient way to improve their job skills.

Adult education is an education system prepared for that kind of people who have not completed their education in their early hood time when they were in school or in college or in school. There may be although many different reasons in everyone’s life that why they were not able to complete their study at that time. This programme is specially made for them so that they can get knowledge at any stage of their life. In adult education people often think that quality education is not provided but it is only a myth because quality of knowledge is not different in both type of education system. Some professionals also join this education system. It have been seen more often that many adults enroll themselves in adult education to reinforce knowledge in  career field, to gain new career skills to open new doors in their career path and to fulfill the requirements which have been set on them.

Joining an online adult education program gives the opportunity to adult learners to get learned while staying employed and fulfilling their career requirements. There are many others reasons which will suggest that why people are adopting online adult education programmes like an old aged person will feel ashamed somewhere in his own while to sit in adult education classrooms so he will decide to choose online adult courses and learn it while being at any place even at home as in this he will not face such situations.

Quality Public Education

In 2004 Forbes magazine ranked Raleigh, North Carolina’s Wake County Public School System ( WCPSS ), third in the nation for “Best Education in the Biggest Cities”. It’s no wonder, as Greater Raleigh is able to provide superior education opportunities in both public and private settings. WCPSS is a national leader on the education front. The school system boasts a solid high school graduation rate, great access to educational resources, and affordability in housing. All these factors, combined with it’s amazing programming make for an undeniably strong school system.

If you are moving to the Greater Raleigh area and want to know about specific WCPSS programming, read on:

K-12: The Formative Years

Committed to excellence, The Board of Education has adopted an ambitious goal. They aim to have 95 percent of WCPSS students in grades three through 12, at or above grade level by the end of this year! Such ambitious goals are indicative of a forward thinking and committed board, who are dedicated to providing the best education and ensuring that positive growth continues.

Parents in this area have a wide variety of educational options. There are many traditional public schools and also numerous private and special-needs schools. WCPSS offers over 20 programs in the district with 51 magnet schools. The award winning magnet school program provides creative approaches for teachers to reach students and to meet different student’s individual learning styles and needs. Magnet schools in the area, have been especially recognized with awards such as the United States Magnet School of Excellence of award and the Magnet School of Distinction award.

Recently the district received a portion of a 2.3 million dollar grant to open a health and life science themed high school aimed at developing students for both higher education and jobs in biotechnology and health care. Students at these schools will have the opportunity to participate in internship programs and will have access to community college and university level courses. There’s other grant funding in place which comes from the New Schools Project, an 11 million dollar grant that will create more than 100 new and redesigned high schools across the state.

Post- Secondary: Superior Education at Your Doorstep!

North Carolina State University, as one of the nation’s top research universities, is a great example of one the best post secondary options in Raleigh. Home to BTEC, The Golden LEAF Biomanfacturing Training and Education Center, this University is committed to providing a highly trained, industry-focused workforce. Dedicated to pursue “innovation in action”, NCSU partner’s with business’s, industry and government with a focus to collectively create innovative products and research.

The region’s community colleges also offer solid programs for those wishing to pursue technical, or specialized training in particular sectors of the workforce.

North Carolina community college is focused on biotechnology training to provide a highly trained workforce for the estimated 125,000 residents of NC who will be employed in this sector by 2025.

Wake Technical Community College is a leader in biological and chemical technology programs. They also offer North Carolina’s only community college lab facility for industrial pharmaceutical technology. As a state leader providing over 20% of all industry training offered by community colleges in the state, Wake Tech serves as a catalyst for economic growth and development. This exceptional community college assists thousands of businesses with its superior Small Business Center and New and Expanding Industry Program.

It is easy to see why Raleigh, North Carolina boasts one of America’s most educated workforces. If education is important to you and your family, consider Raleigh, North Carolina as a smart option for a solid future.

Thanks To President Obama’s Scholarships, America’s Dads Can Now Go Back To School

Now is not an easy time to be an American, especially if you are a working dad scrambling to make ends meet in a hostile economic environment. Read on and see how you can create a more comfortable life for you and your family.Perhaps you, as a working dad, feel that your life and career is in a rut, but you don’t know where to turn for assistance, as your cash flow is substantially limiting your options. Fortunately, President Obama sympathizes with America’s fathers who are in the same predicament, and has decided to do something concrete about it. The Obama administration is willing to fork out millions of dollars a year in Federal Pell Grant scholarships for free to dads who are prepared to return to school, put shoulders to the wheel and earn themselves a higher college or university education. Specifically, $9,000 a year is on offer for dads to help settle their school fees.These grants are offered free of charge, and do not have to be paid back. The money is chiefly meant to be spent on tuition fees and textbooks. And if you are a working dad who does not have the time to study fulltime, online studying is another excellent option to consider.To start the application process is a simple matter of going online and completing the FAFSA (Federal Application for Free Student Aid) documents. Submit these and your enrollment papers to your school of choice. Before long, you could have your share of the scholarship grant in hand, after the school has deducted the necessary tuition costs.It’s all in your hands, dad, apply now, as it’s never too late to earn that degree and empower yourself for a brighter tomorrow!

Public school uniforms: must-wear for every kid

Since different dresses of different students make diversity in the school environment, thus, uniforms of the school keep the uniformity among the students. Uniforms come in different colors according to the demand of the schools. They are quite diverse in design from one school to another school.

Moreover, school uniforms ensure the integrity among various students. While they wear uniform, all dresses become the same and they do not feel neglected or jealous when they see someone wearing better dress. This kind of distinction goes away while they find uniformity in dressing in a school. More importantly, when students wear uniforms for their school they carry name of the school and they tend to stay away from any kind of misbehavior.

Many parents want their students to wear school uniform. All parents find that there has to be public school uniforms and private school uniforms. There would be no mercy if any student from any kind of school background does not wear school uniforms. Usually, it is seen that private school uniforms are more in vogue, whereas, students are more reluctant about school uniforms while they are going to public schools. Though parents from both school backgrounds want their wards to wear proper school uniform.

School uniforms do not only carry the image of a school but also maintain many other disciplines of schools. Students are highly punished if they are not present in the school by wearing proper uniform. This particular dress code of the school ensures that students should be well-aware of the fact that they should be accustomed with a single dress in their work life as well.

School uniforms come in different colors and designs. Uniforms for boys and girls are quite different. Boys’ dresses come in shirts and pants variety and girls usually wear skirts with shirts. Otherwise, girls are found in different frocks with tie and belt.  Sometimes, girls wear tunic with suitable school shoes with it.  In winters, girls are also found in trousers and shirts. Boys in school also wear neck ties and belts.

Public school uniforms are found in different colors and themes. Though many parents find it difficult to make their kids wear school uniform as in public school wearing school uniform is not always that mandatory.

Thus, we have seen the importance of the school uniforms. Now being a parent, we need to understand the value of school uniform and we need to get assured that our wards are wearing neat and clean uniform everyday while going to school.

Scholarships and Grants For Single Fathers – A Pack of Opportunities

The recent economic recession has been harshly reflected on Americans who don’t have college degrees. The current work market has been increasingly demanding college degrees as indispensible qualifications for jobs with rather medium to high salaries. Recent studies have concluded that only about 15% of single fathers in America hold college degrees. Scholarships and grants for single fathers are now widely available across America, thanks to Obama’s recently boosted Federal Pell Grant.

Single fathers are often faced with a multifaceted burden. Parenting and disciplining their children is not an easy task and consumes much time and effort. Moreover, they are also bound to working that guarantees financial support of their beloved ones. Accordingly, most single fathers are reluctant to engage in educational programs that, in their opinions, can consume time and money they work themselves out to earn. The new Federal Pell Grant is financing education for single fathers and is relieving them of the burden of the high costs of education. On the other hand, the new Federal Pell Grant is financing online learning programs; thus, it can help single fathers earn their degrees from home and save them a great deal of time.

The federal funds available for single fathers have been increased to 5100 dollars per semester. Eligible single dads can receive up to 10000 $ worth of educational grants per year. The federal educational grant finances up to 28 semesters of education; thus, every father can easily earn his degree. Moreover, the Federal Pell Grant can finance online educational programs for those who want to earn their degrees from home. The grants can pay for college fees, books and internet bills for single fathers who choose to earn their degrees online.

The federal educational grants can be received through a number of outlets. Filling the free application for federal student aid (FAFSA) is one of the easiest routes to earn these scholarships. The FAFSA examines eligibility of single fathers who apply for federal scholarships. Moreover, the FAFSA enlists all educational institutions which participate in the federal student aid program across America. On the other hand, you can get federal educational grants through your state. Pay a visit to the county’s service office and you will be able to know the opportunities available for you.

Scholarships and grants for single fathers are now available through the Federal Pell Grant new program. Those scholarships are providing opportunities for single fathers to earn college degrees and qualify for better paying jobs.

Attention All Dads – Obama’s Scholarship Program Aimed at Fathers Gives $10,000 Extra

There has been a flurry of activity on the behalf of the government’s new stimulus package. Part of this deal is for education grants. Yes, there are several categories of grants available, but a big portion of it is reserved for dads. These men have had some of life’s opportunities taken away from them for a number of reasons and deserve the chance to change their lives. There are many of them who have put their own dreams away for their children. That can change now with these Federal Pell Grants.The newly revised grant system was created in order to cover many of life’s expenses and school at the same time so there is less financial burden for these individuals. There are lots of single dads out there who hold down more than one job to try to support their family. This grant will cover some of this, the tuition, the books, amongst other things.Once you are given this grant, you can receive up to $10,000 a year or $5100 a semester for up to 18 semesters. That will be more than enough to put you through until you graduate. In the future the government is looking to increase the funds again to cover even more expenses.If you want to go to school, but childcare is a problem, then you can find programs online. There are hundreds of degrees that you can complete over the internet. There are so many options for you that there aren’t very many reasons not to take Obama up on his offer.For more information, check out the government and the FAFSA website. They are

In Today’s Societ An Adult Education Is A Necessity

The adult education, category of this article site where the following piece of writing is located consists of lots and lots of additional helpful articles for almost any search you have in mind, whether it is adult education, you will find either the underneath writing or many others inside the exact category valuable. You should not wait to discuss your views, ideas and even difficulty with us. Your view will obviously assist!

Gone are the days when people sulked over a past wasted when they should have schooled. All kinds of adult education have made that into a history right now. These days, there is no limit to how much you could still learn as long as you still breathed. All that is stopping anyone from getting more educated nowadays is themselves and the excuses they keep coming up with. If you are one of such people, it’s time to drop the excuses and pick up a better education.
Get Ahead With An Adult Education

It might interest you to learn that adult education and training kind of started up in churches when missionaries and teachers thought you had better chances of binding the devil if you could read from the Good Book. It has grown into something so much bigger today, but it says a lot for how church folk care about each other, and how important those Bible roots are.

It has been a long time since people have been subscribing to adult education. The numbers in fact keep rising everyday now, with people realizing what they could get from it. In that wise, I suggest you go for it as well. You may want to consider giving this as a great birthday gift idea nearly all individuals would be happy to get this as a surprise.

You don’t have to be the failure everyone thinks that you are. You could still up and make changes in your life that could open newer and bigger doors for you. I am speaking of you taking up some adult education programs and making better for yourself.

You can never be more than you imagine that you can. However, you could fail to reach your goals if you don’t know to follow them through. That’s why a chance like adult education is not something you should let slide; it is something you should charge at with all you have.

A large portion of the population of the United States is into some form of adult education or the other at this time, especially in the higher institutions. These programs are largely successful too, because people subscribe to them; I don’t see why not you. Chances will afterall begin to spill out of the woodwork for you once you can get those qualifications.

This article website has numerous great and also interesting pieces of writing on many areas of interest mainly related to adult education and even other somewhat related adult education information. Make out time to go through our several other numerous and even highly informatory articles and you will no doubt be convinced that this is really one article site of repute worth coming back to and one which is worth telling your contacts, workmates, brothers and even well-wishers about.

Practical Homeschooling Tips – Home Schooling Grants For Parents And Guardians

Home schooling families do have access to grants. If you would be interested in knowing more about what kinds of grants are there for you, you would have to undertake a well-searched inquiry. As per general law one cannot approach the United States government for home school grants; the funds are not too large.

Then what is the way to find such grants? Online surfing is the best way to find out. These grants for home schooling do exist though they are not out in the open and therefore are tough to locate. But as said, these grants do exist and we look at ways at finding them.

At places where large corporations give grant is termed, as corporate grants. Large corporations have frequently given grants to charter & traditional schools. A few of these corporate grants also find their way to home schools but to receive a pie of it you need to know which grants you can send applications for.

Multinational behemoth IBM actively supports initiatives in the field of education; but none of these allowances are for home schools. Wal-Mart does give grants for homeschoolers though. All you need to do is get in touch with the company’s education section and put forward your application for grants. These departments are not authoritative so you could end up talking to various people on the same matter to get the desired results.

In the US home schooling grants from the government home schooling do not exist. Those people who are graduates via home schooling and are going to college can be given scholarships & grants, but federal governments have nothing as such for families of home schools. Canadian situation is completely opposite however. For instance in British Columbia $175 worth of grant is allowed for every kid that joins a home school prior to 1st November.

Grants are available to home schools but only from other home schools. Grants for every student in the state of Alaska is there for the textbooks in the shape of an annual grant. An association with some kind of a home school support group is very important. You can easily approach your home school group to inquire if they issue grants.

Quite of few do, but that may be as like study material and writing material, only a few select issue grants in monetary terms. Just incase your group of home school has a 501 (c) 3 standing as per US Tax code then it brightens your possibility of receiving a grant.

Last but certainly not the least, check with your ministry or even the church. These organizations, if incase they do not run a home school of their own would be more than happy to be of some help. They could donate books that have religious learning and material required by the home school. But remember receiving grants is not easy and you may be required to knock on a few more doors than you set out to but if you need them then do keeping looking for all kinds of grants possible.


Home School Education – Advantages And Disadvantages

Why Parents Choose a Home School Education

An increasing number of children today are receiving a home school education. The reasons for making the choice to homeschool their kids varies from family to family but there are three main reasons why parents are removing their children from the public school system and giving them a home school education.

The first reason is that the public education system in the United States is struggling to provide a proper education for the nation’s children with out of date text books, run down school buildings and inadequate equipment. Provision of a home school education enables the parents to have control over the quality of the educational materials used by their children and the general conditions in which they are educated.

The second reason is that parents wish to assume more control over the influences their children will be exposed to. This is often on the basis of religious grounds but, very often, it is simply because a home school education will ensure the child learns the values upheld by the family and is taught from an early age what behavior is appropriate. Unfortunately, many public schools have a poor reputation for instilling good discipline in students. This often results in badly behaved children disrupting lessons and preventing their peers from getting the full benefit of classes. Discipline and the upholding of proper standards of behavior is an important part of a home school education.

The third reason many parents choose to give their children a home school education is fear for their safety. Violence is on the increase everywhere and the public school system has not escaped this trend. Violence in the public education system is getting worse and the individual acts of violence are more serious. Since the shocking events at Columbine High School there have been further tragedies involving firearms where teachers and students have been injured or killed. A home school education ensures the safety of children who would otherwise be seriously at risk of harm.

The Disadvantages of Opting For Homeschooling

Providing a home school education is not simply a matter of parental choice. In most cases the state education board of the state in which the family resides will have to approve a decision to give a child a home school education. The person taking on the responsibility of homeschooling must be certified to be a home teacher, the curriculum must follow the state curriculum, and the text books and other educational materials to be used must be approved by the state. Although this might seen like undue interference in what is a matter of personal choice, the state has a responsibility to ensure that all children receive an adequate standard of education and checks will be made to ensure that any child being kept away from public school is being properly educated.

A home school education might mean that a child is deprived of certain opportunities which would have been available within the public school system. There could be difficulties in providing facilities for athletic children to realize their potential. Musically talented children could be similarly disadvantaged. In some states there is provision for children receiving a home school education to take part in amenities such as being able to attend sports lessons and join after-school clubs. However, the level of assistance provided to homeschooling parents is not uniform and varies a lot from state to state.

The final potential disadvantage to affect children receiving a home school education is that they will not develop the social skills which will be important as they grow up. Social interaction with their peers and with adults outside the family is essential if a child is going to grow up with a properly balance personality and a reasonable level of social skills. These developmental issues can be fairly easily overcome if the child lives in a state where homeschooling parents are given support and the child receiving a home school education is accepted into classes and extra-curricular activities.

The decision to keep a child out of the public education system is not one any parent would make lightly and any weighing up of the pros and cons must take into account the level of support the state will provide. However, if the public school system continues to deteriorate, the number of children receiving a home school education is bound to increase.

Adult Education Diploma Helps With Both Personal And Professional Development

Previously it was thought that once an individual secured a job, the purpose of his education was met. However, learning is a lifelong process and its purpose cannot be judged by one’s eligibility for a job. Fortunately, over time, people’s mindset about formal education has changed and lifelong learning is no longer considered to be idealistic. Rather, continued learning is now considered to be a necessity. Many working adults opine that constant learning has emerged as the best way to retain and enhance one’s employability.


However, continuing with formal education is often easier said than done for working individuals. As one’s age increases, so does his responsibilities, both on the personal and professional fronts. Endless commitments and ever-increasing complexities of life affect adults’ ability to learn and retain knowledge. However, the lack of sufficient knowledge can also affect adults’ way of life.


In order to successfully continue learning, it is of much importance that an adult never loses his love for learning. He can choose to enrol in adults’ education courses. These programmes provide adult learners with scopes of improvement both in the personal and professional fronts. Opportunities of betterment encourage adults to learn new things. It would not be wrong to say that these programmes, if pursued diligently, can revive an adult’s love for learning.


Take a look at some of the ways in which adult education diploma courses can inculcate confidence and happiness in a learner.


Professional development

Continuing education is vital for steady career growth. There are ample changes happening in today’s work sectors and in order to stay on top of all those changes, one must enrol in a part-time professional course. It is impossible for one to learn everything about his profession at the beginning of his career. Professional courses can help adults to upgrade their knowledge and skills, which are required to advance their careers.


Confidence booster

Enrolling in adult education programmes can sharpen one’s analytical and decision-making skills. When he makes informed decisions, his decisions tend to be correct. The better decisions one makes, the more confident he becomes about his own choices. Enhanced knowledge also leads to more achievements, which boosts the learner’s confidence.


Better quality of life

With enhanced knowledge, the learner becomes equipped to secure a better-paying job, which in turn, enables him to fund a better lifestyle. A fulfilling lifestyle keeps issues like dissatisfaction and depression at bay. Newer achievements make people happier and revive their zeal for success. This happier, more enthusiastic outlook is required to battle everyday stress. Therefore, adults acquire considerable fulfilment in both their professional and personal lives.


Adult education does not just prepare an individual for professional development. Nor does it focus exclusively on the development of personal attributes. In fact, it does not target one single aspect of one’s life. It helps to become a better individual, both on professional and personal fronts. Adult education aims at improving his overall standard of life